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Dynamique monétaire et développement des échanges marchands. Le cas du nord laos

Abstract : Money has a paradoxal statute in economic theory. To solve barter constraints it is supposed to appear in a barter economy and, once instituted, it has an accessory role. To construct this money genesis model authors imagined the barter economy to enhance its limits. Regarding to this point, the Phongsaly province case (Lao PDR ) is from a major interest. In few decades it shows secular phenomenon elsewhere. From 1975 to 2000, the local monetary field changed and the rural autarkic communities gave up its traditional organisations to turn into a market oriented model. Goods' exchanges played a weak role until 1975 but became progressively vital after this date. Required statistics were not available to check our hypothesis : A dynamic between money is necessary for market development. Data collecting had been the first step of this research. Then we adapted the national accounting system in order to enhance, for each money, the volume of goods exchanged. Our results show that the State imposed its money (kip) through a new tax system. Therefore peasants were obliged to trade goods to pay taxes. A market emerged and surplus could be sold. In addition once kip had been imposed comparisons between goods became possible. Peasants could asset what their productions were equivalents to and exchanges became a steady way to get what they produced before. Progressively they left their original self-sufficiency system and labour social division started. Nevertheless, even if the kip became the ordinary currency in this area it does not fill the whole monetary space. Traditional moneys kept their role and foreign currencies appeared. In 2000 traditional moneys were still used : by the poorest peasants; as a storage of value for the richest peasants; or generally spoken as a vector of socialisation. They were crucial to be inserted in a solidarity network that gave to peasants the necessary security to face the dangers of a market organisation. Foreign currencies are generally used to import or export goods. These currencies are specifically used by traders and according to their business moneys change. Both, traders and the national money, are the angular stone of monetary dynamic and good exchange development. Kip, as the main unit of account, gives a common norm to make the price system possible. Then the sustainable goods exchange system become concrete. It is as well the reference to make other currencies comparable. Traders organised goods transfers from production to consumption, they organised currencies transfers as well. Then supply and demand have been linked and markets are developing.
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 12, 2012 - 7:26:34 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, March 23, 2022 - 3:50:06 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00652946, version 1



Pierre Alary. Dynamique monétaire et développement des échanges marchands. Le cas du nord laos. Economies et finances. Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), 2006. Français. ⟨tel-00652946⟩



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