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Croissance et δ13C des cernes de trois essences forestières tempérées (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea et Pinus sylvestris) face aux variations climatiques à l'échelle interannuelle et saisonnière

Abstract : Climate change will probably alter the tree growth in temperate forests. The species vulnerability to climatic constraints can be studied using tree rings. The latter's are natural archives of carbon used for tree growth and are linked to species carbon transfer and response to climate. The main thesis objective was to determine the functional response of three temperate species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea et Pinus sylvestris) under climatic variations using tree rings. For this, an experimental approach was conducted using two proxies (or climatic indices): the radial growth and the carbon isotope composition in 13C (δ13C) of rings at two time scales: interannual and intra-annual (or seasonal). At interannual scale, over the period 1960-2007, a dendrological study was done for three species and was completed by analysis of ring δ13C (in relation to climate). Over one year (2009) at seasonal scale, we precisely determined the radial growth dynamics and the variations in intra-ring δ13C. Our results highlighted growth and ring δ13C sensitivities to summer droughts. Because of proxy and time-scale complementarities, we have also found contrasted climatic responses among species. The beech growth is the most year-to-year responsive to climate. This growth and ring δ13C were highly sensitive to temperature in July in addition to spring and summer precipitation. This quick response of beech growth to climate could be explained by strong growth dependence to leaf functioning and low carbon reserve use to ensure the growth beginning. Contrary to the two others species, long-term consequences of climate on oak growth were found, via a high sensitivity to previous autumnal droughts. This result could be related to the high use of carbon reserves compared to assimilates for earlywood growth, which was very quick as observed by seasonal growth analysis. Concerning pine, the growth was influenced by temperatures and precipitation from June to August because the growth lasted longer for pine than that of the deciduous species. At both seasonal and interannual scales, the ring δ13C of pine trees was the best recorder of the VPD response, probably because of strong sensitivity of stomatal conductance to VPD. The information provided by tree rings allow to anticipate the species survival under future climate change and could be used to understand the declining due to these changes.
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Alice Michelot. Croissance et δ13C des cernes de trois essences forestières tempérées (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea et Pinus sylvestris) face aux variations climatiques à l'échelle interannuelle et saisonnière. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PA112103⟩. ⟨tel-00652599⟩

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