Observation et modélisation spatiale de pratiques agricoles territorialisées à partir de données de télédétection : application au paysage bocager

Abstract : Today the environment is experiencing fundamental changes, largely due to human activity. Indeed, while climate and biophysical phenomena have been the main drivers of land surface transformations for a long time, humans are now responsible for most of the changes affecting terrestrial ecosystems. Thus, the practices of local actors play a key role in land use change and therefore in environmental ecosystems. Intensification of agriculture causes degradation in the "natural" environment and significant changes in landscape structures. In "bocage" regions, hedgerow network management plays a key role in ecosystem conservation, biodiversity, vegetation and wildlife and in the quality of water, soil, etc. This thesis focuses on hedgerows, and especially on the identification of territorialized agricultural practices and their space‐time organization. The objectives of this thesis are to study hedgerow agricultural practices in Brittany through their interactions with landscape structures, and to model their organization, in order to understand how they influence landscape dynamics. The process of identification and characterization of agricultural practices was undertaken by evaluating different types of remote sensing images with high and very high spatial resolution and airborne LiDAR data, using a contextual approach to object‐oriented classification. The modeling of agricultural practices was performed with a multi‐agent model in order to take into account the spatial dimension of actor decisions and to evaluate the influence of agricultural practices on hedgerow network evolution. The results of the hedgerow network analysis using remote sensing data highlight their complementarities: detailed characterization of hedgerow continuity is made possible using high spatial resolution images, while determination and mapping of agricultural practices at the tree scale can be seen from airborne LiDAR data. The process of observation and characterization of the hedgerow network allows determination of the spatial arrangement of the woody structure, by taking into account not only the presence of individual elements, but also their extent in the landscape and their spatial arrangement within crop succession temporal dynamics. The multi‐agent model developed allowed analysis of the influence of agricultural practices on landscape dynamics, and determination of the importance of making local level decisions on the hedgerow network evolution at a larger scale
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Geography. Université Rennes 2, 2011. French. <NNT : 2011REN20046>


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Clémence Vannier. Observation et modélisation spatiale de pratiques agricoles territorialisées à partir de données de télédétection : application au paysage bocager. Geography. Université Rennes 2, 2011. French. <NNT : 2011REN20046>. <tel-00651991v2>

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