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L'apprentissage implicite d'une grammaire artificielle chez l'enfant avec et sans retard mental : rôle des propriétés du matériel et influence des instructions

Abstract : This thesis investigates artificial grammar implicit learning in mentally retarded and typically developing children through the role of the surface features (adjacent or non-adjacent repetitions) of the material and the influence of test instructions (implicit or explicit generation tests). One of the aims is to differentiate between four of the main implicit learning models by examining the sensitivity to the perceptually salient features of the material presented to children of different ages. The robustness of implicit learning capacities in the face of development and intellectual level is equally tested according to the permeability of the test instructions to explicit influences. Finally, these experiments study the apprehension of the training stimuli and the progressive behavioural adaptation as a function of the age of the participants and the perceptual and statistical characteristics of the material. The results reveal sensitivity to the specific surface features of the training sequences rather than to the grammatical structure from which they were built. On the one hand, Experiments 1 and 3 show that implicit learning is invariant with age and intellectual level when the test instructions limit the explicit contaminations. On the other hand, despite the same training phase used in Experiments 1 and 3, Experiments 2 and 4 indicate age effects and a performance impairment in children with mental retardation, when the test instructions elicit intentional information retrieval processes. Experiment 5 shows that different types of saliencies (perceptual, positional and statistical) guide the apprehension of the material during the training phase operating concurrently, before leading to the progressive formation of more complex units. This thesis brings elements in favour of a stimuli-specific learning, based on the attentional processing of their surface features and the involvement of basic associative mechanisms. It also confirms the postulates of robustness of implicit processes and states the methodological precautions that are necessary to the study of implicit learning capacities, such as the neutrality of the procedures to explicit influences or the use of a control group.
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Arnaud Witt. L'apprentissage implicite d'une grammaire artificielle chez l'enfant avec et sans retard mental : rôle des propriétés du matériel et influence des instructions. Psychologie. Université de Bourgogne, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010DIJOL019⟩. ⟨tel-00651503⟩

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