Abstract : This thesis considers the large-scale wireless sensor network (LSWSN) consisting of million nodes. The questions are: how to predict the good working and to compute before deployment the performances of such a network, knowing that no simulator can simulate a network of more than 100000 nodes? How to ensure its configuration to ensure performance, scalability, robustness and longevity? The solution proposed in this thesis is based on a two-tiered heterogeneous architecture of WSN in which the level 1 is composed of sensors and the level 2 of collectors. The first contribution is a multichannel self-organization algorithm, which allows partitioning the network of level 1 into several disjointed sub-networks with one collector and one frequency channel while respecting the principle of frequency reuse. The second contribution is to optimize the deployment of collectors because their number represents that of sub-networks. The problems addressed were: the optimization of sinks locations for a predetermined number of sinks, and the minimization of financial cost related of the sinks' number, for a predetermined number of hops in the sub-networks. An intuitive and appropriate solution to ensure both network performance and cost is to partition the network of level 1 into balanced sub-networks in number of hops. To do this, the physical topology of sinks is a regular geographical grid (square, triangular, etc.). Theoretical studies and simulation of topology models show, depending on application requirements (node density, charge application, delivery models, delay in number of hops) and physical (radio range, surveillance zone), the methodology of choice and the computation of the best deployment solutions.