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Mécanismes de rétention du cuivre dans les sols : évaluation statistique des approches macroscopiques et spectroscopiques

Abstract : Copper is a chemical element, harmful for the living matter, which may be associated under different forms with organic and inorganic constituents of soils. At a macroscopic scale, thermodynamic modelings, often over-parameterized, are insufficient to conclude on the nature of these forms. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) performed with rays focused on a few micro-m² allows the access at this information. At this micrometer scale, the specific variability of copper forms from one point of analyze to another induces changes on the measured micro-XAS signal. In theory, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) enables the enumeration of pure species. These techniques have been used to characterize the copper forms on the one hand in paddy fields contaminated by mining (MAMUT, MALAYSIA) and on the other hand in an infiltration basin of runoff waters (CHASSIEU, FRANCE). Copper associated with organic matter, metallic copper, chalcopyrite and local specific copper crystals have been identified. However, due to the low reliability of existing indicators, the total number of copper species has only been limited by ACP. This problem was overcome by the development of a new indicator statistically evaluated on known composition mixtures and whose accuracy on the number of species is ± 1 in the worst cases. STAR Date de soutenance : 3 octobre 2011 Thèse sur travaux: non
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 8, 2011 - 9:22:45 AM
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Thomas Lenoir. Mécanismes de rétention du cuivre dans les sols : évaluation statistique des approches macroscopiques et spectroscopiques. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENU028⟩. ⟨tel-00649483⟩

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