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Lieux et modèles : l'exemple des villes de fondation au XXe siècle

Xuan Son Le 1
1 ACS - Architecture, Culture, Société XIXe-XXIe s
UMR AUSser - Architecture Urbanisme Société : Savoir Enseignement Recherche
Abstract : This thesis proposes a study of the existing relationship between places and natural sites on one hand, and the city models on the other hand. The analysed context is the one of the new towns, that is to say the short term planified, totally constituted and realised cities, resulting from complete formal models, most of the time engendered by a centralised power or a concentrated decision.In the history of cities, we can assume that the most important realised new towns are the greek cities, the roman cities, the royal cities, the european colonial cities and the industrial cities. During the 20th century, the opportunities to create urban development become rare in aid of the extensions. However, several countries carried out creations of service cities : Brasil with Brasilia, India with Chandigarh and Navi Mumbai (New Bombay), China with Shenzhen, Great-Britain with the New Towns such as Milton Keynes, France with the Villes Nouvelles (New Towns), like Marne-la-Vallée or La Grande-Motte. Moreover, the project imaginary and tools grew with an important sample of theoretical and utopian cities (from Fourrier to Le Corbusier via Arturo Soria y Mata) and of literary cities, the most famous text being Invisible Cities from Italo Calvino. The making of the new towns is still topical today. We assisted recently to the consecration of the Malaysia and Myanmar capital cities, while the new South Korea capital encompassed the project phase to become real. And the possibility of a new capital for Indonesia is more than ever an emergency. The present research will thus establish the genesis of the new towns, in particular of the pre-existing models which sustain them : on one hand, we will have a specific attention to the moment, the actors and the contexts of the creation decision ; on the other hand, we will study the relationship between the form of the projected city, the site and society datas, the functions of the settlement place and the effective realisation, in order to bring to the fore if theses different contexts were taken into account or not. At the end of this research, we can say that the new towns and the making of the new towns is a universal phenomenon, which appears all along history, through all the ages and in all parts of the world. Thus, is there a structure in the process of production that is common to all types of new towns, in which we could detect a link between the 3 making parameters : the sites, the models and the actors? After a journey throughout history, from existing books, documenting the main civilizations which created new towns, the research will focus on a sample of 20th century cities, in particular the service cities after world war II : Brasilia (Brasil), Chandigarh (India), Marne-la-Vallée and La Grande-Motte (France), Milton Keynes (England), and the industry city of Magnitogorsk (U.S.S.R.)
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Xuan Son Le. Lieux et modèles : l'exemple des villes de fondation au XXe siècle. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université Paris-Est, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PEST1143⟩. ⟨tel-00647895⟩

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