Abstract : This work is dedicated to the development of an optical probe, which aims at helping the neurosurgeon during glioblastoma surgery. These brain tumours are the most frequent and aggressive ones. The quality of the tumour resection is crucial for the patients' survival.As an introduction, the different types of brain tumours are described and the way they are taken in care is explained. The manuscript is divided into three parts. First, the experimental set-up and the home-made fibre-probe are characterized, thanks to optical calibrated phantoms. The depth of detection has been determined for several optical coefficients and phantom geometries.A dedicated Monte-Carlo simulation program has been developed. Based on phantom measurements, this program has been validated. The time-consuming process of fibre probe characterisation via phantoms can be replaced by the use of the program.At last, the identification of indicators of tumourous brain tissue is studied by means of an animal model. A spectroscopic study has been performed on fresh ex-vivo rat brain slices. Several tumourous indicators have been highlighted within this study.