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Bases moléculaires de la résistance métabolique au néonicotinoïde imidaclopride chez le moustique Aedes aegypti

Abstract : Mosquitoes transmit several human and animal diseases and their control represents a public health challenge worldwide. In most tropical countries, efficient control of mosquitoes relies on the use of chemical insecticides targeting adults or larvae. However, resistance to the four main classes of chemical insecticides has been reported worldwide and threatens vector control programs. In this context, there is an urgent need to find alternatives to conventional insecticides used in vector control. In this thesis, I explored the potential use of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid for mosquito control, focusing on the identification of metabolic resistance mechanisms, cross-resistance with other insecticides and the impact of environmental pollutants on imidacloprid tolerance. The mosquito Aedes aegypti was used as a model species for this research work. Basal tolerance of Ae. aegypti to imidacloprid was first evaluated at the larval and adult stages. Effects of a larval exposure across a single generation to a sub-lethal dose of imidacloprid were then investigated at the toxicological and molecular levels using transcriptome profiling. Short sub-lethal exposures were also used to identify potential cross-responses between imidacloprid, other chemical insecticides and anthropogenic pollutants. Long-term adaptive response of Ae. aegypti to imidacloprid was then investigated across several generations by selecting an insecticide-susceptible strain (Bora-Bora strain) with imidacloprid at the larval stage for 14 generations in the laboratory. Such artificial selection allowed obtaining the Imida-R strain. This strain showed an increased resistance to imidacloprid in larvae while no significant resistance was measured in adults. Resistance mechanisms were then investigated using various approaches including the use of detoxification enzyme inhibitors, biochemical assays and transcriptome profiling with DNA microarray and massive mRNA sequencing. Several protein families potentially involved in resistance were identified including detoxifications enzymes and cuticle proteins. Among the formers, 8 cytochrome P450s and 1 glutathione S-transferase appears as good candidates for a role in imidacloprid metabolism. The role of P450s in the elevated resistance of the Imida-R strain was confirmed by comparative P450-dependent in vitro metabolism assays conducted on microsomal fractions of the susceptible and Imida-R strains. At the gene level, substrate binding modeling allowed restricting the panel of P450 candidates. Meantime, heterologous expression of one P450 was performed and its ability to metabolize imidacloprid confirmed. Bioassay with other insecticides revealed potential cross-resistance of the Imida-R at the larval stage to other neonicotinoids but also to an insect growth inhibitor and in a lesser extent to DDT, confirming the probable role of detoxification enzymes. Relaxing the selection pressure of the Imida-R strain for few generations led to a rapid decrease of resistance, suggesting a cost of resistance mechanisms. Comparing the inducibility of candidate detoxification genes by imidacloprid in susceptible and resistant strains revealed a higher induction of these genes in the resistant strain, suggesting the selection of both a higher constitutive expression but also a greater phenotypic plasticity of these enzymes in the Imida-R strain. Finally, the potential role of cuticle protein in resistance was preliminary investigated by exposing larvae to a chitin synthesis inhibitor before bioassays. Overall, although this research work requires additional functional validation experiments, these data provide a better understanding of imidacloprid resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes and its potential use as an alternative to conventional insecticides in vector control.
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 1, 2011 - 10:52:17 AM
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Muhammad Asam Riaz. Bases moléculaires de la résistance métabolique au néonicotinoïde imidaclopride chez le moustique Aedes aegypti. Autre [q-bio.OT]. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENV057⟩. ⟨tel-00646983⟩

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