Contribution au développement d'une stratégie de diagnostic global en fonction des diagnostiqueurs locaux : Application à une mission spatiale

Abstract : The work presented in this thesis deals with the synthesis of algorithms for the diagnosis of simple and multiple faults. The main objective which is pursued is to design a fault diagnosis scheme by merging a minimum number of analytic redundancy with the available hardware redundancy. The main contribution of the proposed technique concerns the general architecture of the proposed diagnosis method. The originality of the research work is the combination of ideas and tools originated from two research communities : the FDI (Fault Detection and Isolation) community and the DX (Diagnosis) community whose foundations are derived from Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence fields. Hence, the fault detection problem (as well as the isolation task when structural constraints allow it) is solved by means of FDI techniques while the fault isolation problem is solved through the DX approaches, thus resulting in an aggregated methodology. The proposed method is divided in two steps. The first step deals with the construction of a mutually exclusive signature matrix. Hence, the problem of the minimal number of analytic redundancy relations (ARR), necessary for generating a diagnosis without any ambiguity, is treated. This problem is formalised as an optimized problem under constraints which is efficiently solved by means of a genetic algorithm. The second step concerns the generation of diagnoses. Thus, for an observed situation, the identification of conflicts results in the determination of the non satisfied ARRs for the given observation. The diagnoses are obtained by means an algorithm based on the concept of MNF (Maximal Normal Form) formulas. The main interest of this approach is its capacity to deal with the diagnosis of simple and multiple faults as well as the diagnosis of multi-modes faults (i.e., multiple types of faults) associated to each component of the system. Furthermore, it exists proofs on optimality both at a local level (proof of robustness/sensitivity) and at a global level (proof of minimal diagnoses). The proposed method is applied to the Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. This spacecraft mission, undertaken jointly by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA), aims at returning tangible samples from Mars atmosphere and ground to Earth for analysis. The critical phase of the mission is the rendezvous phase between the sample container vehicle and the orbiter spacecraft. The research work aims at realising sensor fault diagnosis on the orbiter during the rendezvous phase of the mission. Simulation results from the MSR high fidelity simulator, provided by Thalès Alenia Space, demonstrate the feasibility and the efficiency of the proposed approach.
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Irwin Issury. Contribution au développement d'une stratégie de diagnostic global en fonction des diagnostiqueurs locaux : Application à une mission spatiale. Automatique. Université de Bordeaux; Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux (IPB), 2011. Français. ⟨tel-00643548⟩

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