Histoires tragiques et " canards sanglants " : Genre et structure du récit bref épouvantable en France à la fin du XVIe et au début du XVIIe siècle

Vincent Combe 1
1 BCL, équipe Linguistique de l’énonciation
BCL - Bases, Corpus, Langage (UMR 7320 - UNS / CNRS)
Abstract : The politico-religious context particularly virulent in recent decades of the sixteenth century and the early seventeenth century has seen a brief literature entirely unique, enriched by different influences. The tragic stories and news items are bloody two genres that evolve and coexist at the time. The first appears in the new line of Italian Mateo Bandello, and is influenced by all this literature brief ranging from the tragic and the comic in the mid-sixteenth century. The genre continued in the early decades of the seventeenth century from the pen of writers missionaries of the Catholic faith in purely tragic and very influenced by the stylistic marks of baroque aesthetic. Within himself like that, it was proposed a tripartite classification on the diachronic stories. Thus, three generations have been considered from authors flagship with a real impact on the evolution of the genre: the first represented by Pierre and Francois de Boaistuau Belleforest opens in the 1560s and is an extension of the short story Bandello. The second is for the years 1580 and marks the assertion of the codes of the genre in its position in relation tragic, but also in the choice of subjects through the compilations of Truth Habanc Poissent and benign. Finally the third generation, for the years 1610-1630 is illustrated by François de Rosset and Jean-Pierre Camus who wear the kind operating at its peak in the force demonstrator duck bloody and romantic own influence to seduce the reader. The "bloody new item," whose expression has been borrowed from the collection of Maurice Lever, is truly a massive propaganda tool, anonymous but known to be made by Rome, so who wants to reaffirm the assumptions of the Catholic Church in the new look of the dogmas of the Council of Trent. In addition, in an editorial context is quite favorable, with printing, as this literature develops itself takes its national sitting in a context of mistrust vis-à-vis the neighboring nations. It turns out that the tragic history and the "bloody new item" have been studied exclusively by critics so far. However, generic and formal similarities are remarkable sensed between the two genres. This innovative study examines the foundations generic and formal look to a stable structure that would be the "terrible story" at the time. In the first chapter on gender issues appalling stories are considered: what are the fundamental structural underlying these two genres? Influences the extent to which founding generation (Italian novella, tragedy) and innovative at the time (romance novels) been involved in the formal evolution of the story while maintaining a dreadful narrative logic common? That no art of poetry does is interested in these forms of narrative, the generic definition of contours appeared come a necessity. Formalist studies (Russian, Italian and French) were used as anchor point for reflection. The tripartite statement of the law / transgression / punishment has been qualified under the variety of texts. These have, indeed, the distinction of being overly porous to other generic forms in vogue at the time (the tragedy, the novel, the story of law and poetic expression). This finding was not surprising since these stories are also based on the seduction of the reader. A second chapter discusses in detail the constituent units of its kind following the protocol narrative. The title is, first of all an important step because it is on the threshold of the story away and expectations related to its normal function. Indeed, one particularly dense, comes in the form of a summary with all the information provided by the narrative, until the end invariant, which is characterized by a trial and a trial. The variatio then runs in the various punishments established according to the crime. This unit is the opening instead of a specific study, using graphs and comparison tables, on the generic name and quality of these stories. The exordium appears then as the place of the lesson. The narrator regrets, means of canonical processes such as tempra laudator activity or process of tragic lyricism decadence of the present and the threats to the French people. Moral discourse, its function and its role are studied as the marks of a narrative strategy that does not, after all, the desired effect on the reader's pity. The question of the credibility of the narrative instance to give the lesson is raised and the failure of the device applied to the cathartic narrative. A second step in this chapter focuses on the performance of the central act in the terrible stories, namely the bloody act. Two forms of representation have been identified: one develops a dynamic description of death itself romantic, the other called "death-picture" planning a portrait painting of the scene. Moreover, the aesthetic associated with Mannerist movement (authors of the second generation) and Baroque (bloody ducks and authors of the third generation of tragic stories) were studied in their realization within the stories. The art has proven to be a powerful vehicle for visual propaganda introduced in the narrative. Finally, a microstructural study of the sentence showed that the precipitation tragic exercised at all levels of the story appalling: the composition of narrative discourse and the sentence. Indeed, the abundance of subordinate consecutive and rhetorical devices such as hyperbole and antithesis stylistic clues appear as announcing the tragic fall of the character or precipitating the disaster. A third chapter examines the delicate question of truth in these stories. If bloody historical facts or trivia documented are the main reservoir of the corpus, some stories, like the portraits of monsters appear to be medieval remains that the reader is no longer afraid. Also, the solution was considered likely to be the most worthwhile to report these stories that range from frightening and will need to establish a credible lesson to the reader. Finally we asked about the specific thematic and formal related crimes and criminals that characterize the two genres. Again support for graphics came clarify this process tedious revealing trends on the topics covered by the terrible stories in the temporal space of the corpus. Statistics have shown that unhappy love stories and family vengeance (mostly found in the authors of the third generation, have supplanted the war stories that we found particularly in Benign Poissent. We see the influence of the themes developed in the sentimental novel in vogue at the time. In contrast, the "bloody duck" keep this special theme of monster stories and those of a natural disaster of its own. He was chosen at a final chapter, next to two literary genres that have remarkable similarities with formal els appalling stories. These "chronic daily" Peter and the Estoile epitome of judicial Alexander Sylvain Van Den Bussche. While the first kind has the best qualities of the detailed story taken from life, while reflecting the realities of a flood period (that of Henri III and Henri IV), the other reflects a rhetorical form invariant directly from the mode argument, exposing a bloody cases and problematic in terms of the law. The two victims present their arguments without a pronounced issue. However, the second argument is always the most favorable in the eyes of the narrator, showing just a measure that in thinking about crime. Finally we managed to develop formal and aesthetic principles of the common and stable "terrible story" in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century, while being careful not to generalize certain nuances and exceptions that produce all the wealth of these stories generically and ideologically hybrid firmly anchored in a new battle for the faith. Products of an era, they have all brands, this literature "belligerent" does not leave indifferent because it wants deep active on the drive. Whether dealt him quivering images or lessons particularly strict, pleasure sees it closely linked to the need demonstration. It seems, moreover, that separates the evolution: the authors "late" following Camus, in the second half of the seventeenth century (and Jean-Claude Nicolas Malingre Parival) failed to renew the genre yet very read more until the late eighteenth century. Sade sees examples of vices quite remarkable that he reintroduced his licentious literature by removing the moral dimension of the Grand Siècle. In addition, it is more question. Therefore, the tragic history and values ​​seems to collapse with the old regime. Paradoxically, while the "bloody new item" was a term-time propaganda related to a specific context, it is he who has best reinvented itself. Its shape, more flexible, allowed him to retain the essence of what the reader alluring, namely the story of blood, while getting rid of moral straitjacket. More than ever it is topical, always knowing the format will renew its readership and eras.
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Vincent Combe. Histoires tragiques et " canards sanglants " : Genre et structure du récit bref épouvantable en France à la fin du XVIe et au début du XVIIe siècle. Littératures. Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, 2011. Français. ⟨tel-00643307⟩

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