Abstract : This thesis studies the LPV approach for the robust control of nonlinear systems. Its originality is to propose for the first time a rigorous framework allowing to solve efficiently nonlinear synthesis problems.The LPV approach was proposed as an extension of the H-infinity approach in the context of LPV (Linear Parameter-Varying) systems and nonlinear systems. Although this approach seemed promising, it was not much used in practise. Indeed, beyond certain theoretical limitations, the nature itself of the obtained solutions did not seem adequate. This open question constitutes the starting point of our work.We first prove that the observed weak variation of the controllers is in fact mostly due to the information structure traditionally used for LPV synthesis, and that under reasonable assumptions, the LPV framework can overlap feedback linearization strategies. This point having been resolved, a second difficulty lies in the actual achievement of nonlinear controllers yielding performance guarantees. We propose a rigorous framework allowing to solve efficiently an incremental synthesis problem, through the resolution of an LPV problem associated to a specific information structure compatible with the one identified in the first part.This study and its corollary description of a formal framework and of a complete controller synthesis procedure, including complexity reduction methods, provide powerful arguments in favor of the LPV approach for the robust control of nonlinear systems.