Abstract : In Italy, the " years of lead " represent a controversial past: this period of recent history is often mobilized in various contexts and its interpretations divide and oppose different actors. This thesis analyses the public uses of history, from the 1970s until today, and shows how a dominant frame of interpretation of past events has been set. Various empirical materials (interviews, autobiographies, archives, parliamentary debates) allowed to study different areas where narrations of past events have been constructed and controversies are taking place. Differently from works that are explaining recurrent controversies about the past by its "exceptional" or "traumatic" character, this research is focusing on the present. It analyses the actors that are intervening in public debates about the past and on their specific issues: judges, victims, former activists, politicians. It sheds light on how the past is continuously constructed and reconstructed in and by contemporary mobilizations and controversies. Thus, this work associates the study of actors' trajectories and sociopolitical contexts to explain the posterior lives of the 1970s in Italy.