Abstract : The concept of "sustainable development" is an in fashion and global notion which is more and more debated, according to its use since 1992. The political and economic parties in New Caledonia, as elsewhere in the world, often use this concept in their speech, particularly since 2004. However although at the world level, this notion carries a strong environmental connotation, in the North Province of New Caledonia, a "sui generis" community, it shows other realities. Our work concerns the application of this concept in the Coast of the North Province where other forms of development and management are taking place. Within the frame of the Noumea Agreement, this place has been awarded a widened competence for approximately 10 years. There can henceforth be implemented territory-oriented policies and the priority was given to the mining sector and to the prospective industry. What consideration is then given to the Coast? In this rural area, the Coast displays several complex realities for which a clear understanding induced an analysis of representations and territories (how they are organized and managed by the public policies and how they are actually applied). From these representations originating from the territories, our analysis is interested in understanding the role of public policies and the way they have been implemented. Is it suitable to copy an outside model for the management of oceanian economies, while local solutions are available through their models? The search for territorial balance and for common future among the groups (Kanak, "Caldoches", Westerners) is essential, and that is what this dissertation focuses on. The real sustainable development for the North Province thus goes through a bigger consideration of these populations and its territory, in particular with the 2014 referendum. This territorial balance should more value the Coast and its resources in the same way as those of the mountain. Could the provincial political wish to see the population take part in the definition of a most adequate management be possible? Aquaculture, tourism and fishing activities give some evidence to this position. The complexity of these territories through their representations and the policies attached to it constitute the framework of this research.