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Contribution à la conception et la modélisation transformateurs piézoélectriques dédiés à la génération de plasma

Abstract : The emergence of piezoelectric transformers coincides with the development in the 1950s of ferroelectric ceramics belonging to the perovskites crystalline family. In addition to providing small size and weight, piezoelectric transformers offer outstanding performances in terms of galvanic insulation, voltage ratio and efficiency. Furthermore, compared with conventional electromagnetic transformers, piezoelectric transformers are free from electromagnetic interference. They are consequently more suitable for low power and high efficiency applications for small embedded systems. However, piezoelectric transformers can be deviated from their initial applications. Indeed, the emergence of plasma generator by piezoelectric effect, using mainly piezoelectric transformers, made its mark on the last decade. Nevertheless, if a few typical applications perfectly exemplify this interaction, the understanding of instigated physical phenomena remains to go into detail. The aim of this thesis is to explain the fundaments by a methodical approach. This work is based on several steps including the implementation of piezoelectric transformer analytical modeling, the study of the electrical field generated by a piezoelectric transformer and a first experimental investigation from piezoelectric transformer terminals. The analytical modeling is based on the utilization of the least action principle. From linear piezoelectric theory, a general model applicable to all transformer geometries, using multiple piezoelectric coupling modes, is put forward. Its multimodal characteristic is in addition underlined. This modeling is applied to a classical Rosen type transformer and the obtained results are confirmed on one hand by a numerical identication, and on the other hand by an experimental characterization. The previous analytical modeling does not take into account in its application the influence of the environment in which the piezoelectric transformer evolves. In order to qualify the produced electrical potential, a 2D numerical model of surrounding electrical field is put forward according to nite difference method. This model is based on the extension of previously developed analytical model including mechanical losses in order to quantify the surfacic electrical potential. Even if plasma influence is ignored in first approximation, the modeling allows to highlight high electrical field areas matching glow discharges areas experimentally observed. Finally, in order to validate the concept of piezoelectric plasma generator, a characterization from Rosen type piezoelectric transformer terminals has been undertaken. A systematic study of plasma discharge ignition in function of the input voltage level and the surrounding pressure has been carried out. This experimental part of the study constitutes a pioneering approach in order to qualify transformer electromechanical behavior. It has consequently allowed to give rise to nonlinear behaviors from untypical operation mode which is the surfacic discharge generation by piezoelectric effect.
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Submitted on : Thursday, November 10, 2011 - 10:33:05 AM
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Clément Nadal. Contribution à la conception et la modélisation transformateurs piézoélectriques dédiés à la génération de plasma. Energie électrique. Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - INPT, 2011. Français. ⟨tel-00639894⟩

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