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Bio-essais anti-adhésion sur bactéries marines pour le criblage de molécules et de revêtements antifouling

Abstract : Any surface immersed in water is rapidly colonized by a lot of micro-and macroscopic organisms. Sequential and complex phenomenon known as biofouling, lead to major economic and ecological damages, particularly in the marine environment. The recent ban of toxic substances used as biocides in antifouling coatings for ship hulls notably, has relaunched searching for new molecules antifouling environmentally friendly. The objective of this thesis was to develop and initiate the study of the representativeness of a bioassay allow to assess the potential of molecules and antifouling coatings on "biofilms" mono and multi-species microplate using of fluorochromes. It was decided to focus on the primary biofilm because it is possible that the elimination or limitation of the latter reduce biofouling. Five strains of marine bacteria pioneers, isolated from the Bay of Toulon and Brittany, were used to compare the effectiveness of a settlement of commercial and natural molecules. Two derivatives of natural substances Marine (TFA E and Z) showed significant activity associated with a lack of toxicity in bacteria, suggesting a specific anti-adhesion mechanism. In addition, differences in sensitivity between strains have confirmed the importance of making the bioassay with a various bacteria. To see if the data obtained in the laboratory showed what happens in the natural environment, a comparison between the results of the bioassay in microplate applied to six coatings and biofilms isolated on the same paint immersed for a month in the Bay of Toulon (analyzed by flow cytometry, microscopy and PCR-DGGE) was performed. Quantitative analysis suggested a correlation in between approaches although the absence of effectiency intermediate coating and the number of tested systems limit our conclusions
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Submitted on : Thursday, November 3, 2011 - 6:22:37 PM
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Mercedes Camps. Bio-essais anti-adhésion sur bactéries marines pour le criblage de molécules et de revêtements antifouling. Sciences agricoles. Université de Toulon, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011TOUL0006⟩. ⟨tel-00638080⟩

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