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Exploration de la biodiversité bactérienne dans un sol pollué par les hydrocarbures : analyse par marquage isotopique du potentiel métabolique et de la dynamique des communautés impliquées dans la dégradation

Abstract : Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous compounds produced by incomplete combustion of organic matter. They are a source of environmental pollution, especially associated to oil product exploitation, and represent a threat for living organisms including human beings because of their toxicity. Many bacteria capable of degrading PAHs have been isolated and studied. However, since less than 5% of soil bacteria can be cultivated in the laboratory, bacterial species able to degrade PAHs in situ have been poorly studied. The first goal of this study was to identify bacteria that degrade PAHs in soil using culture-independent molecular methods. To this end, a strategy known a stable isotope probing has been implemented based on the use of phenanthrene, a three rings PAH, in which the natural isotope of carbon was replaced by 13C. This molecule has been introduced as a tracer in microcosms containing soil from a constructed wetlands collecting contaminated water from highway runoff. Bacteria having incorporated the 13C were then identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis after PCR amplification from labeled genomic DNA extracted from soil. The results show that so far little studied Betaproteobacteria, belonging to the genera Acidovorax, Rhodoferax, Hydrogenophaga and Thiobacillus, as well as Rhodocyclaceae, were the key players in phenanthrene degradation. Predominance of Betaprotéobactéries was established thanks to quantitative PCR measurements. A dynamic analysis of bacterial diversity also showed that the community structure of degraders depended on phenanthrene bioavailability. In addition, the phylogenetic diversity of ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases, enzymes involved in the first step of PAH degradation, has been explored. We detected new sequences, mostly related to dioxygenases from Sphingomonadales and Burkholderiales. For the first time, we were able to associate a catalytic activity for oxidation of PAHs to partial gene sequences amplified from soil DNA, by constructing hybrid enzymes and assaying their activity The results obtained and the tools implemented in this study may be used to develop methods for the diagnostic and monitoring of pollutant biodegradation in processes such as bioremediation of PAHs contaminated sites.
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Florence Martin. Exploration de la biodiversité bactérienne dans un sol pollué par les hydrocarbures : analyse par marquage isotopique du potentiel métabolique et de la dynamique des communautés impliquées dans la dégradation. Autre [q-bio.OT]. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENV046⟩. ⟨tel-00637464⟩

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