Abstract : More than ten years ago, the accelerated expansion of the Universe was discovered, by type Ia supernovae, and then confirmed by other probes. This discovery has changed our understanding of the energetic content of the Universe. Indeed, in order to explain such an acceleration, a new component has to be introduced and it must contribute to 70% of the total energy density. This component, the so called Dark Energy, affects both cosmological distances and the growth of structures from which galaxies originates. The main cosmological probes of dark energy are the type Ia supernovae, the galaxy cluster count, the weak gravitational lensing and the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). In order to precisely constrain theoretical models, such as the cosmological constant, a modify gravity or a new scalar field, joint observations of all four probes are very efficient. The required accuracy on cosmological measurements is so high that a new generation of instruments is growing, among which the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). The telescope, with a primary mirror of 8.4 m diameter, will cover half of the optical sky in six photometric bandpasses. Its camera will be the world biggest camera ever constructed with a focal plane array composed of 3.2 Gpixels. This thesis treats both the experimental and phenomenological aspects. Firstly, the work presented here consists in the development of the LSST camera calibration optical bench. We have designed a system allowing an efficient commissioning of the camera before its installation on the telescope, and a precise calibration of the focal plane. Preliminary measurements validating the design of the bench will be presented. Secondly, a detailed Baryon Acoustic Oscillations simulation dedicated to LSST will be introduced. Its main goal is to predict the level of precision on the dark energy equation of state parameter reconstruction that will be reached with LSST. We will stress on the production of a mock photometric galaxy catalog and on the photometric redshifts computation. A validation of the method on real spectro-photometric from CFHTLS will also be shown.