Locomotion et écoulement dans les fluides complexes confinés

Abstract : This work is dedicated to the study of dynamics and rheology of the complex fluids. We use three dimensional numerical simulations. The systems we study here are: suspensions of biological active micro-swimmers, suspensions of rigid spherical particles in presence of an external field and the dynamics of sheared confined spherical particles. Micro-swimmers are the microscopic objects that propel themselves through a fluid and they are ubiquitous in nature. A common example of micro-swimmers is the textit{Chlamydomonas} . One of the main goal of this thesis is to understand the effect of self-motility of these micro-organisms on the global macroscopic properties of the fluid, such as the effective viscosity to explain experimental observations. We elaborated different models for textit{Chlamydomonas} suspensions and conducted numerical simulations using the 3D version of the Fluid Particle Dynamics method (explained in this thesis). The results of our numerical simulations has been shown and discussed in light of the experimental observations. One of the proposed models incorporates all experimentally observed phenomena and is expendable for other types of micro-swimmer suspensions. This thesis is also dealing with the effects of confinement on the dynamics of sheared spherical particles. We found that in confined geometry, angular velocity of sheared particles decreases compared to the one imposed by the shear flow. The angular velocity of the particles decreases also when the particle are close to a single wall and the translational velocity of the particles changes so that the difference between velocity of the particle and the velocity of the wall decreases. Another objective of this work is to study suspensions with tunable effective viscosity. We conducted a numerical investigation of sheared spherical particle suspensions in presence of an external torque. We showed that the change of particle angular velocity with an external torque is sufficient to strongly change the effective viscosity of the suspension. Based on numerical simulations, a semi-empirical formula has been proposed for the effective viscosity of spherical particles suspensions valid up to 40% concentration. We also showed that a modified second Faxén law can be equivalently established for large concentrations.
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Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. 〈NNT : 2011GRENY043〉
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Levan Jibuti. Locomotion et écoulement dans les fluides complexes confinés. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. 〈NNT : 2011GRENY043〉. 〈tel-00635980〉



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