Abstract : This thesis deals with model theory, a branch of mathematical logic.We study a particular class of theories called "NIP theories", which includes in particular some ordered fields and valued fields. We are interested in various aspects of those structures. First, we study a specific class of measures, which we call "generically stable measures". We show that they have properties analogous to those of types in a stable theory and we give some constructions to produce them. We also study a weak form of definability of types. Finally, we define a notion of a "purely unstable" NIP theory and show how, in general, we can detect the stable parts of types.