Abstract : There have been a number of studies which have looked at the relationships between gender and use of information and communication technologies (ICT). However, few have investigated this in the educational context in France. The study presented in this Ph.D. dissertation has an exploratory aspect. It's origins are threefold; studies about ICT use in educational contexts, French conceptualisation of gender, conceived in part as a result of gender roles and relations, and in part as a continuum where people locate themselves between the two poles of masculinity and the feminity. A longitudinal case study was conducted in a Graduate Institute in Science and Engineering using on line questionnaires, face-to-face and computer mediated interviews, and analyses of students' websites and blogs The contrast between students' statement about their trajectories of usage and the skills developed by learning and practical experience, and their stated uses and observed products, revealed a gap. This could be explained with regard to gender roles and relationships, the gender-based attributions, and indications of a phenomena related to dependance / independance on them. Although these students are enrolled on scientific degree courses, it appears that their gendered social identity strongly influenced their skills, in relation to the paths their lives have taken, strongly marked by gender norms. Nevertheless, ICT use associated with artistic skills and hobbies allows girls to develop compentencies in different spheres to boys, which favour activites in the masculine domain of video games and ICT in the educational context.