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Lymphocytes T régulateurs et Transplantation hépatique : modulation de l'activité des lymphocytes T régulateurs CD4+CD25+ par les drogues immunosuppressives

Abstract : Liver transplantation (LT) remains the only effective therapeutic approach for cirrhosis related HCC patients. Inevitable hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence after liver transplantation is a major barrier to the survival of a transplanted liver. It may be promoted by immunosuppression and the emergence of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg). Transplanted patients are also been confronted to allograft rejection, which is partially controlled by Treg cells and the administration of an immunosuppressive therapy. However, some immunosuppressive drugs have been associated with more frequent graft rejection. In this context, it was important to assess the effect of immunosuppressive drugs on regulatory T cells, both in HCV recurrence and graft rejection. We have first confirmed the implication of Treg cells in hepatitis C recurrence progression. Indeed, regulatory T cells markers are over-expressed, 1 and 5 years after LT, both in the liver and in periphery and proportionally of the recurrence severity. In a second time, we have analysed the effect of immunosuppressive drugs used after LT (cyclosporine A (CsA), tacrolimus, rapamycine and mycophenolate mofetil) on regulatory T cell activity. We have shown that only low concentrations of CsA (20 and 40 ng/mL) inhibit regulatory T cell activity (these doses are used 5 years after LT). It seems that CsA does not affect regulatory T cell phenotype (protein and gene expression) but lead to a secretion of Th1 cytokines in Treg cells : IL-2 and IFN-γ. As CsA, is known to inhibit IL-2 transcription through the calcineurin/N-FAT pathway, we have tried to identify if CsA inhibits Treg cells via this pathway or via a calcineurin -independent pathway. Two observations have confirmed the hypothesis of a calcineurin -independent pathway : (i) tacrolimus, which have the same immunosuppressive mechanism as CsA, could not inhibit Treg activity, and (ii) NIM811, a calcineurin - independent CsA analog, inhibits regulatory T cell activity at the same concentrations than CsA. Moreover, this hypothesis has been directly confirmed by the absence of of modification of the N-FAT dephosphorylation profile. Lastly, corticoids, known to preserve Treg activity, could induce Treg cell proliferation in vitro. However, they could not reverse the inhibitory effect of CsA on Treg cells. Our results suggest that a therapeutical dose of CsA could inhibit CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell activity. Treg cells play an important role in graft tolerance and hepatitis C recurrence after LT, so their inhibition by CsA could favour graft rejection and decrease recurrence severity. These results are important, as liver transplantation iscurrently the only survival alternative for HCC related patients. The ideal immunosuppressive therapy does not exist, but it would not increase Treg activity, which may promote hepatitis C recurrence, neither abrogate this activity due to the risk of graft rejection.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00632785
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Submitted on : Saturday, October 15, 2011 - 4:17:26 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 4:10:43 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Monday, January 16, 2012 - 2:20:57 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00632785, version 1

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Céline Miroux. Lymphocytes T régulateurs et Transplantation hépatique : modulation de l'activité des lymphocytes T régulateurs CD4+CD25+ par les drogues immunosuppressives. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011LIL2S001⟩. ⟨tel-00632785⟩

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