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Mécanismes impliqués dans la formation des anomalies chromosomiques lors de la meiose en absence de brca2 chez la plante arabidopsis thaliana

Abstract : In somatic cells, several mechanisms are involved in the repair of DNAdouble strand breaks (DSB). In meiotic cells, programmed DSBs are causedby Spo11 and repaired by homologous recombination (HR), whose main playersare Rad51 and Dmc1 aided by Brca2. In Arabidopsis, in the absence ofBrca2, meiosis is disturbed, chromosomes do not organize into bivalents,they appear stuck and entangled together. Thus, in the absence of Brca2,HR may be no functional and the chromosomal anomalies we observecouldresult from the aberrant repair of the DNA DSBs due to other mechanisms ofDNA repair. We have shown in Arabidopsis that the homologous end joining(NHEJ) and/or Single Strand Annealing (SSA), mechanisms of DNA DSB repairthat are active in the somatic phase, were not involved in the formationof the meiotic anomalies observed in the absence of Brca2 in meioticcells. Still assuming that these figures are the result of meioticcovalent bond, we checked whether DNA ligases could be involved. Thus, wehave shown that 6 Ligase, DNA ligase specific plants, had no role in thechromosomal abnormalities observed in meiosis in the absence of Brca2.Besides the Ligase 6 does not seem to interfere with the meiotic figuresobserved in rad51 and mnd1 mutants. We wanted to identify the Ligase 6role in studying its mutant. Ligase 6 mutant did not show sensitivity togenotoxic stress. The Ligase 6 does not seem to be involved in DNA repair.The lethality of the ligase I mutant was bypassed with a RNAi constructaimed at extinguishing the gene expression of LIGASE I atmeiosis only.However, the involvement of Ligase I in the meiotic anomalies observed inthe absence of Brca2 could not be determined. Finally, we confirmed that,in Arabidopsis, Xrcc4 has a role in NHEJ through its interaction withligase IV and the sensitivity of the xrcc4 mutant to different genotoxicstress. In contrast, Xrcc4-like does not appear to interact with playersin the NHEJ ligation complex and the mutant shows no sensitivity togenotoxic stress. These result indicated that this protein is not involvedin NHEJ and, more generally in the mechanisms of DNA repair.
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Marilyn Dumont. Mécanismes impliqués dans la formation des anomalies chromosomiques lors de la meiose en absence de brca2 chez la plante arabidopsis thaliana. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PA112086⟩. ⟨tel-00632489⟩

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