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Identification et caractérisation du polymorphisme génétique des cytochromes P450 4A11 et 4A22 (CYP4A11 et CYP4A22) et de la glycine N-acyltransférase (GLYAT)

Abstract : Through evolution, in order to adapt to its chemical environment, the human organism has developed enzymatic systems that can transform exogenous molecules or xenobiotic (drugs, toxins, carcinogens…), generally of hydrophobic nature, in metabolites more easily excretable via urinary or biliary tract. Some of these enzymes are also involved in catabolic processes or in the biosynthesis of endogenous compounds (fatty acids, retinoids, steroids, prostaglandins…). These enzymes thus play a major role in the protective response of the body toward chemicals and in essential physiological processes. The existence of anomalies in the sequence or structure of the genes encoding these enzymes can expose carriers of these anomalies to particular susceptibility toward xenobiotics or to impairment of essential biological reactions. In a first step, we investigated the nature and extent of the sequence variability of three genes coding for the enzymes CYP4A11, CYP4A22 and Glycine N-acyltransferase (GLYAT). In a second step, functional analyses of sequence variations were carried out, by in silico and in vitro experiments. The CYP4A11 and CYP4A22 genes are the only members of the human CYP4A subfamily. The activity of the recently identified CYP4A22 isoform is still unknown, but the CYP4A11 isoform is know as a ω-hydroxylase of the arachidonic acid, which converted into 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). Several studies have shown that genetic anomalies of CYP4A are likely to contribute for susceptibility to hypertension in humans. We analyzed the sequence variations of the CYP4A11 and CYP4A22 genes in genomic DNA samples of healthy volunteers. A total of 26 polymorphisms were identified and 5 novel CYP4A* alleles were characterized for each CYP4A gene. The CYP4A 3D models were built and validated to analyse the potential impact of sequence variations identified. This work represents the first description and characterisation of genetic polymorphism of the human CYP4A genes in a French population. The glycine N-acyltranferase or GLYAT plays an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics containing a carboxylic group via conjugation with a glycine residue. Seven sequence variations of the GLYAT gene were identified and four novel GLYAT* alleles were characterized. Localisation of missense mutations in predicted secondary structures suggest that these variants might have a potential role on the GLYAT protein activity. These results could be helpful in investigating the potential association of GLYAT variants with an incidence of reduced efficiency in xenobiotic carboxylic acids detoxification in humans, such as acetylsalicylic acid, pesticides, and solvents (Toluene).
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Christian Lacks Lino Cardenas. Identification et caractérisation du polymorphisme génétique des cytochromes P450 4A11 et 4A22 (CYP4A11 et CYP4A22) et de la glycine N-acyltransférase (GLYAT). Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010LIL2S052⟩. ⟨tel-00630109⟩

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