Nouveau design de sondes pour biopuces ADN fonctionnelles et caractérisation des capacités de biodégradation des communautés bactériennes de sols pollués par des hydrocarbures

Abstract : Soil ecosystems are sensitive to damage from pollutions, and there is an increasing need to develop better methods for removing pollutants from soils. The removal of pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, by bioremediation, is a less invasive and expensive process than classical decontamination. However, use and optimization of bioremediation treatments require knowledge on metabolic capacites of microbial communities involved in the biodegradation of such pollutants. To assess their huge metabolic potentialities, we need high throughput tools, such as functional microarrays, that allow the simultaneous analysis of thousands of genes. However, most classical functional microarrays use specific probes that monitor only known sequences and so, fail to cover the full microbial gene diversity present in complex environments. We have thus developed a program, named Metabolic Design, to design efficient explorative probes for functional microarrays. Then, we successfully validated our new functional microarray studying metabolic capacities of Sphnigomonas paucimobilis sp. EPA505 able to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Finally, we assessed metabolic capacities of microbial communities in soil, contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons. Results show that our probe design (sensitivity and explorative quality) can be used to study a complex environment efficiently.
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Sébastien Terrat. Nouveau design de sondes pour biopuces ADN fonctionnelles et caractérisation des capacités de biodégradation des communautés bactériennes de sols pollués par des hydrocarbures. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010CLF22061⟩. ⟨tel-00629656⟩

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