M. Julliere, Tunneling between ferromagnetic films, Physics Letters A, vol.54, issue.3, pp.225-226, 1975.
DOI : 10.1016/0375-9601(75)90174-7

J. S. Moodera, L. R. Kinder, T. M. Wong, and R. Meservey, Large Magnetoresistance at Room Temperature in Ferromagnetic Thin Film Tunnel Junctions, Physical Review Letters, vol.74, issue.16, pp.74-3273, 1995.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.74.3273

A. Fert and I. A. Campbell, Two-Current Conduction in Nickel, Physical Review Letters, vol.21, issue.16, p.1190, 1968.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.21.1190

C. V. Tiusan, Magnétisme et transport polarisé en spin dans les jonctions tunnel magnétiques. Utilisation du transport tunnel comme une sonde micromagnétique, 2000.

L. Buda, Developpement d'un code de calcul micromagnétique 2D et 3D : Application à des systèmes réels de type films, plots et fils, 2001.

E. C. Stoner and E. P. Wohlfarth, A Mechanism of Magnetic Hysteresis in Heterogeneous Alloys, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol.240, issue.826, pp.599-642, 1948.
DOI : 10.1098/rsta.1948.0007

O. Fruchart, Couches minces et nanostructures magnétiques (partie 1)', Techn, 2007.

O. Fruchart, Couches minces et nanostructures magnétiques, 2007.

W. H. Meiklejohn and C. P. Bean, New Magnetic Anisotropy, Physical Review, vol.102, issue.5, p.1413, 1956.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.102.1413

W. H. Meiklejohn, Exchange Anisotropy???A Review, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.33, issue.3, pp.1328-1335, 1962.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1728716

D. Mauri, H. C. Siegmann, P. S. Bagus, and E. Kay, Simple model for thin ferromagnetic films exchange coupled to an antiferromagnetic substrate, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.62, issue.7, 1987.
DOI : 10.1063/1.339367

A. P. Malozemoff, Random-field model of exchange anisotropy at rough ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic interfaces, Physical Review B, vol.35, issue.7, p.3679, 1987.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.35.3679

K. Takano, R. H. Kodama, A. E. Berkowitz, W. Cao, and G. Thomas, Role of interfacial uncompensated antiferromagnetic spins in unidirectional anisotropy in Ni[sub 81]Fe[sub 19]/CoO bilayers (invited), J. Appl. Phys, issue.11, pp.83-6888, 1998.

A. E. Berkowitz and K. Takano, Exchange anisotropy ??? a review, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol.200, issue.1-3, pp.1-3, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0304-8853(99)00453-9

P. Bruno and C. Chappert, Ruderman-Kittel theory of oscillatory interlayer exchange coupling, Physical Review B, vol.46, issue.1, p.261, 1992.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.46.261

S. S. Parkin, Systematic variation of the strength and oscillation period of indirect magnetic exchange coupling through the 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals, Phys. Rev. Lett, issue.25, pp.67-3598, 1991.

L. Savtchenko, Method of writing to scalable magnetoresistance random access memory element', US patent, 2003.

H. Fujiwara, S. Wang, and M. Sun, Critical-field curves for switching toggle mode magnetoresistance random access memory devices (invited), Journal of Applied Physics, vol.97, issue.10, pp.97-107, 2005.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1857753

D. C. Worledge, Spin flop switching for magnetic random access memory, Applied Physics Letters, vol.84, issue.22, pp.4559-4561, 2004.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1759376

K. Wasa and S. H. , Handbook of sputter deposition technology, 1992.

J. J. Cuomo, S. R. Kaufman, and H. , Handbook of ion beam processing technology, 1989.

J. P. Nozieres, S. Jaren, Y. B. Zhang, A. Zeltser, K. Pentek et al., Blocking temperature distribution and long-term stability of spin-valve structures with Mn-based antiferromagnets, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.87, issue.8, pp.3920-3925, 2000.
DOI : 10.1063/1.372435

I. L. Prejbeanu, Thermally assisted MRAM, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, vol.19, issue.16, p.165218, 2007.
DOI : 10.1088/0953-8984/19/16/165218

C. Papusoi, R. C. Sousa, B. Dieny, I. L. Prejbeanu, Y. Conraux et al., Reversing exchange bias in thermally assisted magnetic random access memory cell by electric current heating pulses, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.104, issue.1, pp.13915-13921, 2008.
DOI : 10.1063/1.2951931

E. Fulcomer and S. H. Charap, Thermal fluctuation aftereffect model for some systems with ferromagnetic???antiferromagnetic coupling, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.43, issue.10, pp.4190-4199, 1972.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1660894

E. Fulcomer and S. H. Charap, Temperature and frequency dependence of exchange anisotropy effects in oxidized NiFe films, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.43, issue.10, pp.4184-4190, 1972.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1660893

K. Nishioka, C. Hou, H. Fujiwara, and R. D. Metzger, Grain size effect on ferro???antiferromagnetic coupling of NiFe/FeMn systems, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.80, issue.8, pp.80-4528, 1996.
DOI : 10.1063/1.363433

K. Nishioka, S. Shigematsu, T. Imagawa, and S. Narishige, Thickness effect on ferro/antiferromagnetic coupling of Co/CrMnPt systems, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.83, issue.6, pp.3233-3238, 1998.
DOI : 10.1063/1.367090

H. Xi, R. M. White, Z. Gao, and S. Mao, Antiferromagnetic thickness dependence of blocking temperature in exchange coupled polycrystalline ferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayers, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.92, issue.8, pp.92-4828, 2002.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1503159

H. Xi and R. M. White, Theory of the blocking temperature in polycrystalline exchange biased bilayers based on a thermal fluctuation model, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.94, issue.9, 2003.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1613806

D. C. Worledge and P. L. Trouilloud, Magnetoresistance measurement of unpatterned magnetic tunnel junction wafers by current-in-plane tunneling, Applied Physics Letters, vol.83, issue.1, 2003.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1590740

C. Papusoï, Probing fast heating in magnetic tunnel junction structures with exchange bias, New Journal of Physics, vol.10, issue.10, p.103006, 2008.
DOI : 10.1088/1367-2630/10/10/103006

R. C. Sousa, M. Kerekes, I. L. Prejbeanu, O. Redon, B. Dieny et al., Crossover in heating regimes of thermally assisted magnetic memories, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.99, issue.8, pp.99-107, 2006.
DOI : 10.1063/1.2165581

J. Nogués and I. K. Schuller, Exchange bias, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol.192, issue.2, pp.203-232, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0304-8853(98)00266-2

J. A. Osborn, Demagnetizing Factors of the General Ellipsoid, Physical Review, vol.67, issue.11-12, p.351, 1945.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.67.351

V. Baltz, Effets de taille finie sur les couplages magnétostatiques et l'anisotropie d'échange dans le domaine de l'enregistrement magnétique, 2005.

V. Baltz, G. Gaudin, P. Somani, and B. Dieny, Influence of edges on the exchange bias properties of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic nanodots, Applied Physics Letters, vol.96, issue.26, p.262505, 2010.
DOI : 10.1063/1.3449123

S. Queste, S. Dubourg, O. Acher, K. U. Barholz, and R. Mattheis, Exchange bias anisotropy on the dynamic permeability of thin NiFe layers, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.95, issue.11, pp.6873-6875, 2004.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1688471

S. Queste, S. Dubourg, O. Acher, J. Soret, K. Barholz et al., Microwave permeability study for antiferromagnet thickness dependence on exchange bias field in NiFe/lrMn layers, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol.288, pp.60-65, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jmmm.2004.08.017