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Quelques problèmes de géométrie énumérative, de matrices aléatoires, d'intégrabilité, étudiés via la géométrie des surfaces de Riemann

Abstract : Complex analysis is a powerful tool to study classical integrable systems, statistical physics on the random lattice, random matrix theory, topological string theory, … All these topics share certain relations, called "loop equations" or "Virasoro constraints". In the simplest case, the complete solution of those equations was found recently : it can be expressed in the framework of differential geometry over a certain Riemann surface which depends on the problem : the "spectral curve". This thesis is a contribution to the development of these techniques, and to their applications.First, we consider all order large N asymptotics in some N-dimensional integrals coming from random matrix theory, or more generally from "log gases" problems. We shall explain how to use loop equations to establish those asymptotics in beta matrix models within a one cut regime. This can be applied in the study of large fluctuations of the maximum eigenvalue in beta matrix models, and lead us to heuristic predictions about the asymptotics of Tracy-Widom beta law to all order, and for all positive beta. Second, we study the interplay between integrability and loop equations. As a corollary, we are able to prove the previous prediction about the asymptotics to all order of Tracy-Widom law for hermitian matrices.We move on with the solution of some combinatorial problems in all topologies. In topological string theory, a conjecture from Bouchard, Klemm, Mariño and Pasquetti states that certain generating series of Gromov-Witten invariants in toric Calabi-Yau threefolds, are solutions of loop equations. We have proved this conjecture in the simplest case, where those invariants coincide with the "simple Hurwitz numbers". We also explain recent progress towards the general conjecture, in relation with our work. In statistical physics on the random lattice, we have solved the trivalent O(n) model introduced by Kostov, and we explain the method to solve more general statistical models.Throughout the thesis, the computation of some "generalized matrices integrals" appears to be increasingly important for future applications, and this appeals for a general theory of loop equations.
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Gaëtan Borot. Quelques problèmes de géométrie énumérative, de matrices aléatoires, d'intégrabilité, étudiés via la géométrie des surfaces de Riemann. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PA112092⟩. ⟨tel-00625776⟩

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