Abstract : In order to manage the frequent changes in customer requirements, products increasingly complex and face an extreme hard and tougher competition; organizations are always seeking to improve the use of their knowledge portfolio. Thus, it is noted that since fifteen years, many of them have begin to structure their approach to knowledge management. These steps are designed to solve one or more of the following: the retirement of executives who have critical knowledge, sharing the best practices developed by a unit of production, the stimulation of innovation research center etc. In reality, the actual implementation of these initiatives raises many issues now with the tacit nature of knowledge, the existence of cultural barriers to the adoption of a software system for knowledge management. This thesis is in the general framework of knowledge management in the process of product design. We are particularly interested in issues of capitalization and reuse of knowledge in the collaborative design process and routinely using a software system for knowledge management. The main objective of this thesis is to provide a Knowledge Management System (KMS) for capitalization and reuse of knowledge, based on an organizational approach and the paradigm of Multi-Agent Systems (MAS). The choice of MAS is natural because it allows the modeling and implementation of KMS as distributed systems where different actors (business actors) act independently to achieve a specific purpose and interact to achieve a common goal. We propose a model of knowledge management system (KMS) based on the methodology ASPEC dedicated to the analysis, design and deployment of complex systems. This approach allows analysis and design to highlight the objectives of a KMS and the major mechanisms of its functioning. The activities of ASPEC, the identification of needs are a goal-oriented approach that allows modeling of the targets of KMS and the actors involved and their dependencies. The contribution of this thesis is composed of two parts. The first is the analysis of the field of knowledge management, bearing in mind the objective to develop a KMS based on an organizational approach that focuses on social and collaborative design process and manages reuse of knowledge. The second part is to design a MAS as a groupware implementing our approach to reuse of knowledge.