Abstract : In this thesis, we aim to make use of Spin$^c$ geometry to study special submanifolds. We start by establishing basic results for the Spin$^c$ Dirac operator. We give then inequalities of Hijazi type involving the energy-momentum tensor. Studying the energy-momentum tensor on a Spin$^c$ manifold is related to several geometric situations. Indeed, it appears in the study of the variations of the spectrum of the Dirac operator and in the Einstein-Dirac equation. The study of hypersurfaces of Spin$^c$ manifolds allows us for a better understanding of this tensor since it is the second fundamental form of the immersion. Being natural structures on the 3-homogeneous manifolds $E(\kappa, \tau)$ , Spin$^c$ structures will be investigated in the study of some Riemannian problems on hypersurfaces of these manifolds. In fact, we prove a Lawson correspondence for constant mean curvature surfaces in $\Ekt$. Finally, we characterize complex structures and CR structures by $\Spinc$ structures admitting a special spinor, called pure spinor or transversal spinor.