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Caractérisation moléculaire de la rétine embryonnaire et larvaire de la lamproie Petromyzon marinus

Abstract : The lamprey presents a very particular way of development of the retina among the vertebrates. It implies two distinct processes. The first lead to the early formation of a central retina, which presents indications of differentiation in prolarval stages and contains only three differentiated cellular types (bipolar cells, photoreceptors and ganglionar cells). Secondly, during larval stages, a peripheral retina, of which the main part of the adult retina derives, develops within the margin of the central retina. It grows in an important way until the metamorphosis, during which the differentiation of the various cellular types is carried out. I engaged an analysis of the genetic programs which control these processes by studying the expression profiles of three paralogues of the Otx family (PmOtxA/B/C), as well as PmFoxG1, PmPax6, PmVax2 and PmSix3 genes during the early development of the eye, at the stages prolarvaires. The expression analysis of PmPax6, PmOtxB and PmOtxC genes was also studied during larval stages and in the post-metamorphic differentiated retina. Finally pharmacological treatments aiming at inhibiting the activity of the FGF receptor were carried out, in order to evaluate the role of the indications mediated by this receptor at the prolarval stages. The results highlight a very similar regionalization pattern of the optical cup between the lamprey and the gnathostomes. The pharmacological treatments also suggest specification mechanisms of the optical stalk preserved at the level of vertebrate. During the differentiation of the central retina and formation of the peripheral retina, the PmPax6 genes and PmOtxB/C also present a conserved dynamic expression, with some differences. These analyzes provide the first characterization of the genetic programs controlling the formation of the eye in the lamprey. Following these analyzes, the formation of the central retina seems to be an accessible process to molecular characterizations and to functional analyzes and it is a major interest for both evolutionary and mechanistic aspects.
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Claire Rocancourt. Caractérisation moléculaire de la rétine embryonnaire et larvaire de la lamproie Petromyzon marinus. Sciences agricoles. Université d'Orléans, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010ORLE2077⟩. ⟨tel-00623094⟩

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