Abstract : Electro-optic modulators (EOM) are important components in telecommunication systems. Unfortunately, there are some physical effects like ambient temperature variations, polarization and inherent photorefractive coefficient which are due to the drift of EOM transfer function (TF). The thesis presents a method for measuring the drift of the TF of EOM (based on a nonlinearity behavior of modulator - NLl), and propose two instrumentation systems to improve their operations: one to control the temperature of EOM, it is possible to significantly reduce the drift, the second to compensate the drift (the bias point stabilization around the quadrature point is obtained up to 0.22% or the phase fluctuation is 0.44°). These techniques have been applied to improve the behavior of an optoelectronic oscillator high frequency. Four experiments are carried out by controlling the EOM temperature and by compensating the EOM drift. For a short-term stability of OEO, the stabilization of the frequency is obtained with 28% with using a temperature control, up to 71 % with the two techniques. For a long-term stability of OEO, in cases without any control, the OEO has worked for 3 hours and for 1.6 hours (then, the OEO does not work anymore). By using the drift compensation of the EOM FT, the OEO has correctly worked even more than 7 hours and 8 hours.