Abstract : Illite and chlorite are ubiquitous in most diagenetic rocks. Their chemical compositions are sensitive to thermobarometric conditions (pressure, P; temperature, T) and the bulk composition (e.g. Vidal et al., 1999; Parra et al., 2002a, 2002b). These minerals can be good indicators of burial history, and are the basis of several empiric or thermodynamic methods to estimate P-T conditions. A compilation of natural data and the comparison of existing thermobarometers allowed to establish their limitations. To circumvent it, an ordered model of solid solution for chlorites was developed which considers Si-rich low-T compositions. The calibration of this new thermobarometer on various LT-LP geologic fields was tested on natural chlorites analysis of Gulf Coast (Texas) at metamorphic peak, and gives accurate results. Concerning illites, the thermodynamic model of Dubacq et al. (2010) was also tested to estimate its precision. The study was completed by the quantification of the Fe3+ effects. Chemical analyses were obtained by an analytical protocol with high spatial resolution. Combining FIB and EDX-TEM, this protocol allowed an accurate microstructural study of chlorites and illites. These minerals have an intracristalline diversity of their chemical composition. The resulting chemical zonation is a potential error in calibration of thermometers, but allowed consideration of local equilibrium.This approach was used to quantify the P-T path of geologic units in Alps (near Glarus). These results, compared to results of conventional thermobarometers, give a good representation of burial and exhumation process for low-T rocks. Thus, the chemistry records a part of retrograde P-T path and each part of a crystal zoning corresponds to a part of rocks history.