Abstract : Opinions about Irish traditional music today differ greatly, and its actors are to be met all over the world : one should undoubtedly see in these facts a confirmation of the incredible cultural renewal at work in Ireland today. The international recognition that music is thus granted establishes an actual mirror offered to a young nation in search of an identity : any traditional music is a deeply rooted phenomenon and, though they should not be held responsible, its main detractors are to be found among the anonymous crowds, whether uprooted or rejecting their roots. Traditional, folk, popular, even nationalist and 'world music' : all this, and much more, is to be found in this universe. The polysemic value of the terms " Traditional Irish Music " is then living proof of the vitality of this cultural phenomenon. In this perspective, traditional Irish music finds itself at the outpost of a new Irish identity, manifold and pluralistic, a symbol of maturity, far from the dreams of cultural purity sometimes proposed. Considered not so long ago as deeply conservative, if not backward, this country is now moving at a stunning pace. Mentalities change and laws are passed. The phenomenal development of Irish music since the seventies can then be regarded as the forerunner of this ever-growing phenomenon. It would then not be such a surprise to see this young and underrated country show an original path and act as an example for other occidental countries in the decades to come.