Abstract : The pks genomic island of Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae encodes polyketide andnonribosomal peptide synthases that build a putative hybrid PK-NRP compound. This compound designatedColibactin induces DNA double-strand breaks in eukaryotic cells.The pks-encoded enzymatic machinery comprises an essential protein ClbP, atypical for this type ofgenomic islands. We report that ClbP harbors a catalytic and periplasmic N-terminal part, and a C-terminal partassociated to the cytoplasmic membrane. ClbP crystal structure and mutagenesis experiments revealed a serineactivesite and original structural features, which are compatible with peptidase activity confirmed bybiochemical assays. Ten ClbP homologs were identified in silico in NRPS-encoding genomic islands of closeand distant-related bacterial species. All tested ClbP homologs showed functional promiscuity with ClbP. ClbPis therefore a prototype of a new subfamily of peptidases, which are probably involved for the maturation ofNRP compounds.Furthermore, we undertook two epidemiological studies on the prevalence of pks island in E. coli in twopathophysiology contexts; urosepsis and colorectal cancers. The pks island was significantly associated withurosepsis strains compared to commensal strains, and strains isolated from biopsies of colon tumors comparedwith commensal strains or strains isolated from biopsies of rectal tumors, diverticulosis and ileal lesions ofCrohn disease.