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Echanges Air-Neige d'aldéhydes en Arctique

Abstract : Snow is a complex multiphase chemical reactor that exchanges many reactive species with the atmosphere. One consequence of such emissions is that snow dramatically impacts the composition and the reactivity of polar the atmosphere. Carbonyl compounds, including aldehydes, are some of theses noteworthy species emitted by the snowpack. Here, we focus on aldehydes whose photolysis can yield significant amounts of HOx radicals. The knowledge of processes involved in air-snow exchanges is therefore required to understand how snow impacts the oxidative capacity of polar atmospheres. A major part of our work is focused on formaldehyde (HCHO), the most abundant aldehyde in the atmosphere. We first performed an experimental study to measure both the solubility and the diffusivity of HCHO in ice. Our results confirm that the formation of a solid-solution is the process of incorporation of HCHO into snow. We also performed a reanalysis of existing data on the solubility of HCHO in liquid water solutions. Our work made it possible to construct the partial pressure – temperature phase diagram for the H2O-HCHO system. To investigate the processes involved in air-snow exchanges of aldehydes, we monitored their concentration in snow during the OASIS 2009 field campaign which took place at Barrow, Alaska. Our measures were complemented by the monitoring of the snow physical properties and by the measurement of formaldehyde concentration in the gas phase. We developed a numerical code to model HCHO diffusion in and out of ice crystals and showed that it was possible to quantitatively reproduce snow concentrations by considering the equilibration of the H2O-HCHO by solid solution in ice. Our work also focused on other aldehydes that can potentially impact the atmospheric oxidative capacity. Improvements to our analytical method made it possible to measure not only formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, but also glyoxal, methylglyoxal and hydroxyacetaldehyde. This method deployed during the OASIS campaign provided the first measurements of all these aldehydes in polar snow. We found significant amounts of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in snow and we hypothesize that such compounds are located in the particulate organic matter scavenged by snow. The reactivity and structural composition of this organic matter must be further investigated to understand quantitatively the exchanges of these other aldehydes between the snow and the atmosphere.
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Manuel Barret. Echanges Air-Neige d'aldéhydes en Arctique. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENU019⟩. ⟨tel-00609978⟩

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