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Analyse de l’évolution des populations du granulovirus PhopGV en contact avec des hôtes alternatifs Phthorimaea operculella et Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera gelechiidae)

Abstract : Biological invasions constitute an important economical burden when they affect key resources for human alimentation, health or agronomic productions. Potato pests are important as this tuber is a key food source in Andean countries. The recent dispersion of the Guatemalan potato tuber moth, T. solanivora in South America can be traced back to the introduction in Venezuela, with progressive dispersion towards the South. Recent invasions provide, in addition, a unique model to analyse the process of adaptation of the whole receiving ecosystem to the new comers. This introduction of T. solanivora and its coexistence with the endemic potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella offer us the possibility of studying the adaptation to T. solanivora of virus populations infeodated to the later. A survey has been carried out in the potato-producing regions of Colombia. From the T. solanivora larvae collected, granulovirus infections were detected in five different locations. All virus isolates are related to the previously described Phthorimaea operculella granulovirus (PhopGV). Differences in the pathogenicity against the two hosts were observed. Variability was detected in some isolates at two genetic markers. Genetically diverse populations appear to be more pathogenic for both hosts than genetically homogeneous populations. They provide a possible solution for the biological control of these insect pests. Artificial populations were constructed to mimic the mixed natural populations. They behave similarly from a biological point of view, but the evolution of the markers frequencies is not related to the biological efficacy, suggesting that undetected differences in the genomes could be responsible of this host adaptation. The productivity of the infections in both hosts has been studied as it constitutes a key point for the development of a biocontrol agent. The productivity in P. operculella (1.36 to 2.69 × 108 OBs/ mg) and T. solanivora (0.48 to 3.64 × 108 OBs/mg) are not very different. Genotypically mixed populations cannot be differentiated from homogeneous populations by their total production in one or the other host, however, the yields (virus output/doses to infect) show clear differences, mixed populations (natural or artificial) perform better in both hosts. No reduction in the pathogenicity for one host was observed after few cycles of replication of the virus population in the second host. Virus populations originally adapted to P. operculella had evolved to infect T. solanivora. In regions where both host are present, the populations developed a strategy to be efficient on both hosts.
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Carlos Espinel-Correal. Analyse de l’évolution des populations du granulovirus PhopGV en contact avec des hôtes alternatifs Phthorimaea operculella et Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera gelechiidae). Autre. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010EMSE0594⟩. ⟨tel-00609279⟩

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