B. Noble, S. Harris, and K. Dinsdale, The elastic modulus of aluminium-lithium alloys, Journal of Materials Science, vol.2, issue.2, pp.461-469, 1982.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00591481

B. Dubost and P. Sainfort, Durcissement par précipitation des alliages d'aluminium. Techniques de l'Ingénieur, 1991.

M. Thomas, Développement et perspectives des alliages aluminium-lithium. ONERA, 1985.

R. Deverlay, Propriétés de l'aluminium et des alliages d'aluminium corroyés. Techniques de l'Ingénieur, 1992.

J. Papazian, C. Sigli, and J. Sanchez, New evidence for GP zones in binary Al???Li alloys, Scripta Metallurgica, vol.20, issue.2, pp.201-207, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/0036-9748(86)90126-2

T. Sato and A. Kamio, High-resolution electron microscopy of phase-decomposition microstructures in aluminum-based alloys, Materials Science and Engineering a-Structural Materials Properties Microstructure and Processing, pp.161-80, 1991.

Y. Shen, K. Oh, D. Lee, S. Nam, Y. Chang et al., Serrated flow behavior in 2090 Al-Li alloy, Mechanical Behavior of Materials X, Pts 1and 22007, pp.157-60

H. Hardy and J. Silcock, THE PHASE SECTIONS AT 500-DEGREES-C AND 350-DEGREES-C OF ALUMINIUM-RICH ALUMINIUM-COPPER-LITHIUM ALLOYS, Journal of the Institute of Metals, vol.84, p.423, 1956.

S. Ahmadi, H. Arabi, and A. Shokuhfar, Formation mechanisms of precipitates in an Al???Cu???Li???Zr alloy and their effects on strength and electrical resistance of the alloy, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol.484, issue.1-2, pp.90-94, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.03.188

D. Khireddine, R. Rahouadj, and M. Clavel, The influence of ??' and s' precipitation on low cycle fatigue behaviour of an aluminium alloy, Acta Metallurgica, vol.37, issue.1, pp.191-201, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0001-6160(89)90278-2

M. Starink, P. Wang, I. Sinclair, and P. Gregson, Microstrucure and strengthening of Al???Li???Cu???Mg alloys and MMCs: I. Analysis and Modelling of Microstructural changes, Acta Materialia, vol.47, issue.14, pp.3841-53, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S1359-6454(99)00227-X

L. Reich, M. Murayama, and K. Hono, Evolution of ?? phase in an Al???Cu???Mg???Ag alloy???a three-dimensional atom probe study, Acta Materialia, vol.46, issue.17, pp.6053-62, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S1359-6454(98)00280-8

K. Prasad, A. Gokhale, A. Mukhopadhyay, D. Banerjee, and D. Goel, On the formation of faceted Al3Zr (?????) precipitates in Al???Li???Cu???Mg???Zr alloys, Acta Materialia, vol.47, issue.8, pp.2581-92, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S1359-6454(99)00102-0

N. Gao, M. Starink, L. Davin, A. Cerezo, S. Wang et al., Microstructure and precipitation in Al???Li???Cu???Mg???(Mn, Zr) alloys, Materials Science and Technology, vol.20, issue.1701, pp.1010-1018, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/0001-6160(69)90067-4

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, W. Yu, and Z. Hu, Deformation and fracture behaviors of an Al-Li alloy under slow tensile and bending conditions. Aluminium Alloys: Their Physical and Mechanical Properties, Pts 1-3, pp.331-31513, 2000.

J. Staley, W. Warke, V. Weiss, and G. Hahn, Microstructure and Toughness of High-Strength Aluminum Alloys, Properties Related to Fracture Toughness. Montreal: ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials), pp.71-103, 1976.
DOI : 10.1520/STP27801S

P. Paris and F. Erdogan, A Critical Analysis of Crack Propagation Laws, Journal of Basic Engineering, vol.85, issue.4, pp.528-563, 1963.
DOI : 10.1115/1.3656900

R. Forman, V. Kearney, and R. Engle, Numerical Analysis of Crack Propagation in Cyclic-Loaded Structures, Journal of Basic Engineering, vol.89, issue.3, pp.459-64, 1967.
DOI : 10.1115/1.3609637

F. Erdogan and M. Ratwani, Fatigue and fracture of cylindrical shells containing a circumferential crack, International Journal of Fracture Mechanics, vol.6, issue.4, pp.379-92, 1970.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00182626

B. Bilby, A. Cottrell, and K. Swinden, The Spread of Plastic Yield from a Notch, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol.272, issue.1350, pp.304-318, 1963.
DOI : 10.1098/rspa.1963.0055

D. Dugdale, Yielding of steel sheets containing slits, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol.8, issue.2, pp.100-104, 1960.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-5096(60)90013-2

DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-08-022136-6.50045-7

M. Clintock and F. , On the plasticity of a growth of fatigue cracks Fracture of solids, pp.65-102, 1963.

N. Frost and D. S. , The propagation of fatigue cracks in sheet specimens, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol.6, issue.2, pp.92-110, 1958.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-5096(58)90018-8

H. Liu, Fatigue Crack Propagation and Applied Stress Range???An Energy Approach, Journal of Basic Engineering, vol.85, issue.1, pp.116-138, 1963.
DOI : 10.1115/1.3656501

K. Schwalbe, Some aspects of crack propagation under monotonic and cyclic load, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.9, issue.3, pp.547-56, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/0013-7944(77)90070-4

J. Rice, A Path Independent Integral and the Approximate Analysis of Strain Concentration by Notches and Cracks, Journal of Applied Mechanics, vol.35, issue.2, pp.379-86, 1968.
DOI : 10.1115/1.3601206

E. Orowan, Symposium on Internal Stress in Metals and Alloys. London: The Institute of Metals, p.451, 1947.

C. Blankenship, E. Hornbogen, and E. Starke, Predicting slip behavior in alloys containing sherable and strong particles, Materials Science and Engineering a-Structural Materials Properties Microstructure and Processing, pp.33-41, 1993.

J. Duva, M. Daeubler, E. Starke, and G. Luetjering, Large shearable particles lead to coarse slip in particle reinforced alloys, Acta Metallurgica, vol.36, issue.3, pp.585-594, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/0001-6160(88)90091-0

A. Csontos and E. Starke, The effect of processing and microstructure development on the slip and fracture behavior of the 2, wt pct Li AF/C-489 and 1.8 wt pct Li AF/C-458 Al-Li-Cu-X alloys

S. Lynch, A. Wilson, R. Byrnes, . Effects, . Aging et al., Effects of ageing treatments on resistance to intergranular fracture of 8090 Al???Li alloy plate, Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol.172, issue.1-2, pp.79-93, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0921-5093(93)90428-H

R. Pippan, Threshold and effective threshold of fatigue crack propagation in ARMCO iron I: The influence of grain size and cold working, Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol.138, issue.1, pp.1-13, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0921-5093(91)90671-9

G. Hénaff and F. Morel, Fatigue des structures: Ellipses, 2005.

A. Mcevily, W. Zhu, and K. Minakawa, On the influence of the ambient environment on the fatigue crack-growth process in steels, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.25, pp.361-75, 1986.

E. Starke and J. Williams, Microstructure and the Fracture Mechanics of Fatigue Crack Propagation
DOI : 10.1520/STP18825S

V. Kuo and E. Starke, The development of 2 texture variants and their effect on the mechanicalbehavior of a high-strength P/M aluminum-alloy, X7091. Metallurgical Transactions a-Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, pp.1089-103, 1985.

C. Gasquères, Fissuration par fatigue et ténacité d'alliages d'aluminium 2xxx à 223K, 2006.

W. Elber, The significance of crack closure Damage Tolerance in Aircraft Structures. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing Materials, pp.230-272, 1970.

A. Clerivet and C. Bathias, Study of crack tip opening under cyclic loading taking into account the environment and ratio, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.12, issue.4, pp.599-611, 1979.
DOI : 10.1016/0013-7944(79)90100-0

J. Schijve, Some formulas for the crack opening stress level, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.14, issue.3, pp.461-466, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0013-7944(81)90034-5

R. Ritchie and S. Suresh, Some considerations on fatigue crack closure at near-threshold stress intensities due to fracture surface-morphology. Metallurgical Transactions a-Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, pp.937-977, 1982.

S. Suresh and R. Ritchie, A geometric model for fatigue crack closure induce by fracture surfaceroughness . Metallurgical Transactions a-Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, pp.1627-1658, 1982.

N. Walker and C. Beevers, A FATIGUE CRACK CLOSURE MECHANISM IN TITANIUM, Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, vol.5, issue.1, pp.135-183, 1979.
DOI : 10.1016/0013-7944(72)90074-4

H. Jung and S. Antolovich, Experimental characterization of roughness-induced crack closure in Al-Li 2090 alloy, Scripta Metallurgica et Materialia, vol.33, issue.2, pp.275-81, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0956-716X(95)00134-H

S. Suresh, G. Zamiski, and R. Ritchie, Oxide-induced crack closure -An explanation for nearthreshold corrosion fatigue crack growth-behavior. Metallurgical Transactions a-Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, pp.1435-1478, 1981.

S. Suresh, A. Vasudevan, and P. Bretz, Mechanisms of slow fatigue crack-growth in high-strength aluminum-alloys -Role of microstructure and environment. Metallurgical Transactions a-Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, pp.369-79, 1984.

D. Davidson, INCORPORATING THRESHOLD AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS INTO THE DAMAGE ACCUMULATION MODEL FOR FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH, Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, vol.3, issue.3, pp.229-265, 1980.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02321294

D. Davidson and J. Lankford, Mixed-mode crack opening in fatigue, Materials Science and Engineering, vol.60, issue.3, pp.225-234, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-5416(83)90005-8

K. Minakawa and A. Mcevily, On crack closure in the near-threshold region, Scripta Metallurgica, vol.15, issue.6, pp.633-639, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0036-9748(81)90041-7

E. Dahlberg, Fatigue crack propagation in high strength 4340 steel in humid air, Asm Transactions Quarterly, vol.58, p.46, 1965.

F. Bradshaw and C. Wheeler, The effect of environment on fatigue crack growth in aluminium and some aluminium alloys, Applied Materials Research, vol.5, p.112, 1966.

F. Bradshaw, The effect of gaseous environment of fatigue crack propagation, Scripta Metallurgica, vol.1, issue.1, pp.41-44, 1967.
DOI : 10.1016/0036-9748(67)90011-7

J. Petit, D. Fouquet, J. Hénaff, and G. , Influence of ambient atmosphere on fatigue crack growth behaviour of metals Handbook of Fatigue Crack Propagation in Metallic Structures, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V, pp.1159-203, 1994.

J. Petit, C. Sarrazin-baudoux, and G. Henaff, Mechanisms and modeling of intrinsic and environmentally assisted fatigue crack propagation1999

J. Petit, G. Henaff, and C. Sarrazin-baudoux, Fatigue cracking and atmospheric environment, Journal De Physique Iv, vol.10, pp.203-215, 2000.

J. Petit, A. Zeghloul, . Environmental, . Microstructural, . On et al., Revue De Physique Appliquee, pp.905-918, 1989.

J. Petit, Influence of environment on small fatigue crack growth1999

G. Henaff, K. Marchal, J. Petit, . On, . Fatigue-crack et al., On fatigue crack propagation enhancement by a gaseous atmosphere: Experimental and theoretical aspects, Acta Metallurgica et Materialia, vol.43, issue.8, pp.2931-2973, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0956-7151(95)00002-D

H. Gudladt and J. Petit, Stage II crack propagation of Al???Zn???Mg???single crystals in dry and wet atmospheres, Scripta Metallurgica et Materialia, vol.25, issue.11, pp.2507-2519, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0956-716X(91)90058-9

J. Petit, K. Buschow, W. Robert, C. Merton, I. Bernard et al., Fatigue Crack Propagation: Effect of Environment. Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, pp.2892-2898, 2001.

J. Petit, G. Hénaff, C. Sarrazin-baudoux, I. Milne, R. Ritchie et al., Environmentally Assisted Fatigue in the Gaseous Atmosphere. Comprehensive Structural Integrity Oxford: Pergamon, pp.211-80, 2003.

J. Petit and C. Sarrazin-baudoux, An overview on the influence of the atmosphere environment on ultra-high-cycle fatigue and ultra-slow fatigue crack propagation, International Journal of Fatigue, vol.28, issue.11, pp.1471-1479, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2005.06.057

S. Lesterlin, C. Sarrazin-baudoux, and J. Petit, Effects of temperature and environment interactions on fatigue crack propagation in a Ti alloy, Scripta Materialia, vol.34, issue.4, pp.651-658, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/1359-6462(95)00566-8

C. Sarrazin-baudoux, Y. Chabanne, and J. Petit, Influence of environment and of mean stress on fatigue crack growth at near threshold stress intensities on a Ti6246 alloy at room temperature and 500??C, Scripta Materialia, vol.40, issue.4, pp.451-458, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S1359-6462(98)00454-0

C. Sarrazin-baudoux and J. Petit, Environmental effects on near-threshold fatigue crack propagation on a Ti6246 alloy at 500??c, pp.227-263, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S1566-1369(02)80079-6

C. Sarrazin-baudoux, F. Loubat, S. Potiron, S. Shipilov, R. Jones et al., On the competitive effects of water vapor and oxygen on fatigue crack propagation at 550°C in a Ti6242 a lloy, Environment-Induced Cracking of Materials, pp.367-76, 2008.

J. Petit, G. Henaff, . Stage-ii, . Intrinsic, and . Crack-propagation, Stage II intrinsic fatigue crack propagation, Scripta Metallurgica et Materialia, vol.25, issue.12, pp.2683-2690, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0956-716X(91)90139-R

J. Weertman, . Theory, . Fatigue, . Growth, . On et al., Theory of fatigue crack growth based on a BCS crack theory with work hardening, International Journal of Fracture, vol.171, issue.2, pp.125-156, 1973.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00041854

J. Rice, Plastic yielding at a crack tip, International Conference on Fracture. Sendai1965

J. Petit and C. Sarrazin-baudoux, Effet de l'environnement, Fatigue des matériaux et des structures 2: Hermès, pp.149-203, 2008.

E. Tschegg, S. Stanzl, . Fatigue-crack-propagation, . And, . In et al., Fatigue crack propagation and threshold in b.c.c. and f.c.c. metals at 77 and 293 K, Acta Metallurgica, vol.29, issue.1, pp.33-40, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0001-6160(81)90084-5

H. Choi, L. Schwartz, . Fatigue-crack-propagation, . In, and . Tempered-fe-9ni-0, 1C AND FE-4MN-0.15C. Metallurgical Transactions a-Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, pp.1089-99, 1983.
DOI : 10.1007/bf02670447

W. Yu, W. Gerberich, . On, . The, . Parameters et al., On the controlling parameters for fatigue-crack threshold at low homologous temperatures, Scripta Metallurgica, vol.17, issue.1, pp.105-115, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0036-9748(83)90080-7

J. Mckittrick, P. Liaw, S. Kwun, M. Fine, . Threshold et al., Metallurgical Transactions a-Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, pp.1535-1544, 1981.

K. Sadananda, P. Shahinian, . Prediction, . Of, . Stress et al., Prediction of threshold stress intensity for fatigue crack growth using a dislocation model, International Journal of Fracture, vol.14, issue.5, pp.585-94, 1977.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00017294

K. Rao and R. Ritchie, Mechanisms influencing the cryogenic fracture-toughness behavior of aluminum-lithium alloys, Acta Metallurgica et Materialia, vol.38, issue.11, pp.2309-2335, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0956-7151(90)90098-2

J. Glazer, S. Verzasconi, R. Sawtell, J. Morris, . Mechanical-behavior et al., Mechanical behavior of aluminum-lithium alloys at cryogenic temperatures, Metallurgical Transactions A, vol.15, issue.10, pp.1695-701, 1987.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02646201

K. Park and C. Lee, Fatigue crack propagation in Al-Li 8090 alloy at room (300K) and cryogenic (77K) temperatures, Scripta Materialia, vol.34, issue.2, pp.215-235, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/1359-6462(95)00505-6

D. Chen, M. Chaturvedi, N. Goel, and N. Richards, Fatigue crack growth behavior of X2095 Al???Li alloy, International Journal of Fatigue, vol.21, issue.10, pp.1079-86, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0142-1123(99)00087-0

E. Coyne, T. Sanders, and E. Starke, The effect of microstructure and moisture on the low-cycle fatigue and fatigue crack propagation of two Al-Li-X alloys, Aluminium-lithium alloys. Stone Mountain, p.293, 1981.

P. Bretz, L. Mueller, and A. Vasudevan, Fatigue properties of 2020-T651 aluminum alloy

T. Sanders and E. Starke, Aluminum-Lithium Alloys II. Monterey: The Metallurgical Society of AIME, p.543, 1983.

S. Harris, B. Noble, and K. Dinsdale, Effect of composition and heat treatment on strength and fracture characteristics of Al-Li-Mg alloys, Aluminum-Lithium Alloys II, p.219, 1983.

P. Pao, K. Sankaran, O. Neal, and J. , Microstructure, deformation, and corrosion-fatigue behavior of a rapidly solidified Al-Li-Cu-Mn alloy, Aluminum-Lithium Alloys. Stone Mountain, p.307, 1981.

A. Vasudevan, P. Bretz, A. Miller, S. Suresh, and C. Fatigue, Fatigue crack growth behavior of aluminum alloy 2020 (Al???Cu???Li???Mn???Cd), Materials Science and Engineering, vol.64, issue.1, pp.113-135, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-5416(84)90078-8

S. Suresh, A. Vasudevan, M. Tosten, and P. Howell, Microscopic and macroscopic aspects of fracture in lithium-containing aluminum alloys, Acta Metallurgica, vol.35, issue.1, pp.25-46, 1987.
DOI : 10.1016/0001-6160(87)90210-0

A. Vasudevan and R. Doherty, Grain boundary ductile fracture in precipitation hardened aluminum alloys, Acta Metallurgica, vol.35, issue.6, pp.1193-219, 1987.
DOI : 10.1016/0001-6160(87)90001-0

B. Decreus, Etude de la précipitation dans les alliages Al-Li-Cu de troisième génération ? Relations entre microstructures et propriétés mécaniques, 2010.

B. Gable, A. Zhu, A. Csontos, and E. Starke, The role of plastic deformation on the competitive microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a novel Al???Li???Cu???X alloy, Journal of Light Metals, vol.1, issue.1, pp.1-14, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1471-5317(00)00002-X

C. Blankenship, E. Starke, . The, . Crack-growth, . Behavior et al., THE FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH BEHAVIOR OF THE Al?Cu?Li ALLOY WELDALITE 049, Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, vol.7, issue.1, pp.103-117, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-5416(72)90109-7

K. Rao, W. Yu, and R. Ritchie, FATIGUE CRACK-PROPAGATION IN ALUMINUM-LITHIUM ALLOY 2090 .1. LONG CRACK BEHAVIOR. Metallurgical Transactions a-Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, pp.549-61, 1988.

J. Petit and N. Ranganathan, Fatigue crack propagation at low rates and near threshold in Al-Li alloys, Sixth International Aluminium-Lithium Conference. Garmisch- Partenkirchen: DGM Informationsgesselschaft mbH, p.521, 1991.

S. J. Noble, B. Dinsdale, and K. , Fatigue crack growth characteristics of Al-Li based alloys. Fatigue '84. Birmingham1984, p.361

R. Tintillier, Résistance à la propagation aux faibles vitesses des fissures de fatigue dans un alliage aluminium-lithium 8090, Thèse ENSMA, 1988.

Y. Ro, S. Agnew, G. Bray, and R. Gangloff, Environment-exposure-dependent fatigue crack growth kinetics for Al???Cu???Mg/Li, Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol.468, issue.470, pp.88-97, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.msea.2007.01.155

F. Adiwijayanto, Etude comparative des mécanismes de fissuration par fatigue des alliages d'aluminium au lithium 8090C T851 et 2024 T351, 1994.

J. Scully, Y. Jr, G. Smith, and S. , Hydrogen Solubility, Diffusion and Trapping in High Purity Aluminum and Selected Al-Base Alloys, Materials Science Forum, vol.331, issue.337, 2000.
DOI : 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.331-337.1583

S. Smith and J. Scully, Hydrogen Trapping and Its Correlation to the Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu-Zr Alloys, Hydrogen Effects in Materials (Fifth International Conference): TMS, pp.131-172, 1994.
DOI : 10.1002/9781118803363.ch11

S. Smith and J. Scully, The identification of hydrogen trapping states in an Al-Li-Cu-Zr alloy using thermal desorption spectroscopy, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.18, issue.254, pp.179-83, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/s11661-000-0064-8

C. Wardclose, A. Blom, R. Ritchie, . Mechanisms, . With et al., Mechanisms associated with transient fatigue crack growth under variable-amplitude loading: An experimental and numerical study, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.32, issue.4, pp.613-651, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0013-7944(89)90195-1

J. Petit, S. Suresh, A. Vasudevan, and R. Malcolm, Constant amplitude and post-overload fatigue crack growth in Al-Li alloys, Aluminium Lithium alloys III. Oxford: the Institute of Metals, p.257, 1986.

W. Yu and R. Ritchie, Fatigue Crack Propagation in 2090 Aluminum-Lithium Alloy: Effect of Compression Overload Cycles, Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, vol.109, issue.1, pp.81-86, 1987.
DOI : 10.1115/1.3225939

M. Yu, T. Topper, . The, . Of, S. Strength et al., The Effects of Material Strength, Stress Ratio, and Compressive Overload on the Threshold Behavior of a SAE1045 Steel, Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, vol.107, issue.1, pp.19-25, 1985.
DOI : 10.1115/1.3225765

E. Zaiken, R. Ritchie, . On, . Role, . Compression et al., On the role of compression overloads in influencing crack closure and the threshold condition for fatigue crack growth in 7150 aluminum alloy, 7150 ALUMINUM-ALLOY, pp.35-48, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0013-7944(85)90157-2

G. Scarich, K. Bresnahan, and P. Bretz, Fatigue crack growth resistance of aluminium alloys under spectrum loading : Vol. II -Aluminium-lithium alloys, 1985.

N. Ranganathan, A. Abdedaim, M. Petit, and J. , Microscopic load interaction effects observed in an Al- Li alloy as compared to classical damage tolerant alloys. Advanced Aluminium and Magnesium Alloys, pp.165-72, 1990.

R. Wanhill, W. Hart, and L. Schra, Flight simulation and constant amplitude fatigue crack growth in aluminium-lithium sheet and plate, 16th International Congress on Aeronautical Fatigue

L. Schra and W. Hart, Residual strength and fatigue crack growth properties of Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr sheet materials, National Aerospace Laaboratory NLR, p.66, 1988.

R. Chermahini, K. Shivakumar, J. Newman, and A. Blom, Three-Dimensional aspects of plasticity-induced fatigue crack closure, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.34, issue.2, pp.393-401, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0013-7944(89)90152-5

K. Solanki, S. Daniewicz, and J. Newman, Finite element modeling of plasticity-induced crack closure with emphasis on geometry and mesh refinement effects, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.70, issue.12, pp.1475-89, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0013-7944(02)00168-6

K. Solanki, S. Daniewicz, and J. Newman, Finite element analysis of plasticity-induced fatigue crack closure: an overview, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.71, issue.2, pp.149-71, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0013-7944(03)00099-7

R. Mcclung, H. Sehitoglu, . On, . Finite-element, . Analysis et al., On the finite element analysis of fatigue crack closure???2. Numerical results, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.33, issue.2, pp.253-72, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0013-7944(89)90028-3

J. Dougherty, J. Padovan, and T. Srivatsan, Fatigue crack propagation and closure behavior of modified 1070 steel: Finite element study, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.56, issue.2, pp.189-212, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0013-7944(96)00104-X

S. Roychowdhury and R. Dodds, A numerical investigation of 3-D small-scale yielding fatigue crack growth, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.70, issue.17, pp.2363-83, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0013-7944(03)00003-1

S. Park, Y. Earmme, and J. Song, DETERMINATION OF THE MOST APPROPRIATE MESH SIZE FOR A 2-D FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF FATIGUE CRACK CLOSURE BEHAVIOUR, Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, vol.15, issue.4, pp.533-578, 1997.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1460-2695.1997.tb00285.x

S. Roychowdhury and R. Dodds, Three-dimensional effects on fatigue crack closure in the small-scale yielding regime - a finite element study, Fatigue <html_ent glyph="@amp;" ascii="&"/> Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, vol.15, issue.8, pp.663-73, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0921-5093(00)00971-0

A. Gonzalez-herrera and J. Zapatero, Influence of minimum element size to determine crack closure stress by the finite element method, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.72, issue.3, pp.337-55, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2004.04.002

K. Vor, Etude expérimentale et modélisation numérique de la fermeture de fissures longues et courtes dans un acier inoxydable 304L, 2009.
DOI : 10.1051/metal/2010002

C. Hou, Three-dimensional finite element analysis of fatigue crack closure behavior in surface flaws, International Journal of Fatigue, vol.26, issue.11, pp.1225-1264, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2004.02.007

J. Skinner and S. Daniewicz, Simulation of plasticity-induced fatigue crack closure in part-through cracked geometries using finite element analysis, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.69, issue.1, pp.1-11, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0013-7944(01)00115-1

P. De-matos and D. Nowell, On the accurate assessment of crack opening and closing stresses in plasticity-induced fatigue crack closure problems, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.74, issue.10, pp.1579-601, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2006.09.007

S. Pommier, Cyclic plasticity and variable amplitude fatigue, International Journal of Fatigue, vol.25, issue.9-11, pp.983-97, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0142-1123(03)00137-3

J. Newman, A finite-element analysis of fatigue crack closure. Mechanics of crack growth: American Society for Testing Materials, 1976.

A. Palazotto, J. A. Mercer, . Finite-element, . Comparison, . Short et al., A finite element comparison between short and long cracks within a plastic zone due to a notch, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.35, issue.6, pp.967-86, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0013-7944(90)90126-2

C. Wang, L. Rose, and J. Newman, Closure of plane-strain cracks under large-scale yielding conditions, Fatigue <html_ent glyph="@amp;" ascii="&"/> Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, vol.85, issue.2, pp.127-166, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-5096(58)90018-8

H. Andersson, C. Persson, T. Hansson, S. Melin, and N. Jarvstrat, Constitutive dependence in finite-element modelling of crack closure during fatigue, Fatigue <html_ent glyph="@amp;" ascii="&"/> Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, vol.82, issue.2, pp.75-87, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/0013-7944(89)90027-1

K. Singh, M. Parry, and I. Sinclair, Some issues on finite element modelling of plasticity induced crack closure due to constant amplitude loading, International Journal of Fatigue, vol.30, issue.10-11, pp.1898-920, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2008.01.013

K. Solanki, Two and three dimensional finite element analysis of plasticity induced crack closure: Mississsipi State University, 2002.

N. Lesur, Propagation par fatigue des fissures physiquement courtes dans un acier inoxydable de type 304L, 2005.

H. Sehitoglu, S. W. Modeling, . Plane-strain, . Fatigue, and . Closure, Modeling of Plane Strain Fatigue Crack Closure, Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, vol.113, issue.1, pp.31-40, 1991.
DOI : 10.1115/1.2903380

F. Ellyin and F. Ozah, 3D modelling of plasticity induced fatigue crack closure-effect of material constitutive relations, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.77, issue.11, pp.1693-707, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2010.01.016

J. Wu and F. Ellyin, A study of fatigue crack closure by elastic-plastic finite element analysis for constant-amplitude loading, International Journal of Fracture, vol.17, issue.1, pp.43-65, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00017863

S. Ismonov and S. Daniewicz, Simulation and comparison of several crack closure assessment methodologies using three-dimensional finite element analysis, International Journal of Fatigue, vol.32, issue.8, pp.1322-1331, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2010.01.016

A. Gonzalez-herrera and J. Zapatero, Tri-dimensional numerical modelling of plasticity induced fatigue crack closure, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.75, issue.15, pp.4513-4541, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2008.04.024

L. Wei and M. James, A study of fatigue crack closure in polycarbonate CT specimens, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.66, issue.3, pp.223-265, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0013-7944(00)00014-X

J. Zhang, M. Halliday, P. Bowen, and P. Poole, Three dimensional elastic-plastic finite element modelling of small fatigue crack growth under a single tensile overload, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.63, issue.3, pp.229-51, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0013-7944(99)00026-0

P. Chea, Etude numérique de la fermeture de fissure dans un acier inoxydable austénitique 304L, 2010.

P. Sainfort, Contribution à l'étude des relations microstructure-durcissement dans les alliages Al- Li et Al-Cu-Li, 1985.

G. Toutlemonde, Notions de mécanique statique et de résistance des matériaux: Institut français du pétrole et des moteurs, 1973.

M. Kikukawa, M. Jono, and S. Mikami, Fatigue crack propagation and crack closure behaviour under stationary and varying loadings (tests results of aluminium alloy), Journal of the Society on Materials, vol.31, pp.438-87, 1982.

B. Bilby, E. Cardew, and I. Howard, STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS AT THE TIPS OF KINKED AND FORKED CRACKS, International Conference on Fracture 4, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-08-022142-7.50039-9

B. Journet, Analyse de fissure courbe sur 2050-T84 -Document électronique envoyé par mail daté du 19, 2010.

S. Suresh, Crack deflection -Implications for the growth of long and short fatigue cracks. Metallurgical Transactions a-Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, pp.2375-85, 1983.

J. Foulquier, Evaluation of PREFFAS in the case of a 2091 aluminium-lithium thin sheet. Suresnes: Aérospatiale, p.55, 1993.

N. Ranganathan, F. Adiwijayanto, J. Petit, and J. Bailon, Fatigue crack propagation mechanisms in an aluminium lithium alloy, Acta Metallurgica et Materialia, vol.43, issue.3, pp.1029-1064, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0956-7151(94)00301-W

E. Meletis and W. Huang, The role of the T1 phase in the pre-exposure and hydrogen embrittlement of Al???Li???Cu alloys, Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol.148, issue.2, pp.197-209, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0921-5093(91)90822-5

R. Mcclung, CRACK CLOSURE AND PLASTIC ZONE SIZES IN FATIGUE, Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, vol.982, issue.4, pp.455-68, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-5096(73)90024-0

G. Hénaff, Etude de la tolérance aux dommages en fatigue vibratoire d'un acier type 30NCD16

C. Sarrazin-baudoux, Habilitation à diriger des recherches

C. Sarrazin-baudoux, Crack propagation uner fatigue-corrosion interaction in titanium alloys, 10th World Conference on Titanium. Hamburg2003

D. Aliaga, A. Davy, and H. Schaff, A simple crack closure model for predicting fatigue crack growth under flight simulation loading. 13th ICAF Symposium

D. Aliaga, A. Davy, and H. Schaff, A Simple Crack Closure Model for Predicting Fatigue Crack Growth Under Flight Simulation Loading, Mechanics of fatigue crack closure ASTM STP 982: American Society for Testing and Materials, pp.491-504, 1987.
DOI : 10.1520/STP27227S