Abstract : The work carried out during this thesis has focused on two independent parts.The first two sections have dealt with the "Vinca alkaloids" part, natural products with anticancer properties. Firstly, the work has focused on the synthesis of oxygenated analogs of the 20,20-difluorocatharanthine as precursors of original dimeric Vinca alkaloid. Although explored synthesis pathways have not led to the desired oxygenated derivatives, different results has enabled to show that the presence of the gem-difluoro groupment on catharanthine skeleton dramatically changed the reactivity of the substrate in an unpredictable manner. The second part of this work was dedicated to the elucidation of the mechanism of fluorination of alkaloids dimers of Vinca in superacid medium. Isotopic labelling with deuterium has allowed to discriminate two mechanistic hypotheses and to validate the mechanism of fluoridation via a 1,2-hydride migration whose minimum contribution is 20 %.Finally, the third part of this work has been devoted to the asymmetric synthesis of (R)- mequitazine. The synthesis is based on the chirality already "printed" into the skeleton of cinchona alkaloids. Synthesis of (R)-mequitazine with greater than 99% final enantiomeric excess was reached in 8 steps from quinine, confirming full control of the asymmetrical centre during the synthesis.