Systèmes énergétiques pour la production d'eau douce potable et d'électricité

Abstract : Renewable sources (solar, wind, atmospheric vapour) represent interesting alternative solutions to meet the needs of isolated populations in water stress (less than 15 L per day) and without electricity . Radiative condensers of atmospheric humidity can produce potable fresh water thanks to a passive natural phenomenon (radiative cooling) that does not require conventional energy. Since year 2000, the University of Corsica, CEA and CNRS have officially agreed to develop the tools to carry out the transition between laboratory prototypes and real systems. In order to approach the maximum theoretical yield (0.8 L m-2), large planar prototypes of 30 m² were built and several protocols of measurement have been elaborated. A numeric digital code (CFD) was developed to determine the performances of complex systems on a large scale (several hundreds of m²) before their installation. New radiative materials for condensation being the subject of a patent deposited, selective in wavelength, were formulated to answer both the constraints of passive air-conditioning of constructions in diurnal cycle and water production in the night cycle. With the help of the OPUR association (www.opur.u-bordeaux.fr), a demonstration roof of 15.1 m² in Biševo-Croatia (annual average yield: 0.18 mm) and a dew production plant of 850 m² (15000 m² planned) was set up. They confirm the potential of technology since the expected plant production will be able to reach 5 m3 of water per day. In similar terms, the solar and wind resources, in a hybrid system of decentralized energy production (coupled with a fossil or hydrogen standard auxiliary source) can mitigate the absence of electrification in certain areas. In this manuscript, computer codes were worked out for physical and economic optimization, concerning either the electrification of isolated sites or the massive production of electricity by connection to a distribution network, for various applications (continue production or voltage drops limitation). The obtained results make it possible to consider the use of a coupling EnR-H2. For this reason, our research team obtained the financing of a PV-H2 power plant on the site of the laboratory: 3.6 MW coupled to an electrolyser and a fuel cell of power of more than 100 kW.
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Habilitation à diriger des recherches
Physics [physics]. Université Pascal Paoli, 2007


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Submitted on : Tuesday, June 28, 2011 - 8:13:31 AM
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Marc Muselli. Systèmes énergétiques pour la production d'eau douce potable et d'électricité. Physics [physics]. Université Pascal Paoli, 2007. <tel-00603643>

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