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Contributions expérimentales et théoriques aux techniques de contraste de phase pour l'imagerie médicale par rayons X

Abstract : Several X-ray phase-contrast techniques have recently been developed. Unlike conventional X-ray methods, which measure the absorption properties of the tissues, these techniques derive contrast also from the modulation of the phase produced by the sample. Since the phase shift can be significant even for small details characterized by weak or absent absorption, the achievable image contrast can be greatly increased, notably for the soft biological tissues. These methods are therefore very promising for applications in the medical domain. The aim of this Thesis is to contribute to a deeper understanding of these techniques, in particular propagation-based imaging (PBI), analyzer-based imaging (ABI) and grating interferometry (GIFM), and to study their potential and the best practical implementation for medical imaging applications. An important part of this Thesis is dedicated to the use of mathematical algorithms for the extraction, from the acquired images, of quantitative sample information (the absorption, refraction and scattering sample properties). In particular, five among the most known algorithms based on the geometrical optics approximation have been theoretically analysed and experimentally compared, in planar and tomographic modalities, by using geometrical phantoms and human bone-cartilage and breast samples. A semi-quantitative method for the acquisition and reconstruction of tomographic images in the ABI and GIFM techniques has also been proposed. The validity conditions are analyzed in detail and the method, enabling a considerable simplification of the imaging procedure, is experimentally verified on phantoms and human samples. Finally, a theoretical and experimental comparison of the PBI, ABI and GIFM techniques is presented. The advantages and drawbacks of each of these techniques are discussed. The results obtained from this analysis can be very useful for determining the most adapted technique for a given application.
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Submitted on : Friday, June 24, 2011 - 8:48:38 AM
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Paul Claude Diemoz. Contributions expérimentales et théoriques aux techniques de contraste de phase pour l'imagerie médicale par rayons X. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENY009⟩. ⟨tel-00602998⟩

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