Abstract : Type 1 and 2 carbonaceous chondrites include the most chemically and petrologically pristine meteorites. This intactness goes along with the abundance of organic matter which is a phase of choice to investigate the presolar material processing in the nebula and then on the first bodies. The purpose of this thesis is to study the influence of post-accretional processes on the molecular characteristics of organic matter and in particular the extent of oxidation effects due to aqueous alteration. We have carried out a comparative study based on the carbon structure and functional analysis of more than ten meteorites whose geologic histories were independently determined. The redox degree of sulfur in the insoluble fraction was measured by SK-Xanes spectroscopy. FT-IR spectroscopy gave access to the fine structures of aliphatic chains and oxygen-rich functions. Orbitrap very high resolution mass spectrometry was used to describe the heteroatomic diversity of soluble molecules in the Renazzo (CR2) chondrite. The aliphatic chains of CI chondrites and Murchison differ from others by a higher and unchanging abundance of methyl groups. Type 1 chondrites are the only carriers of oxidized sulfur functions whereas the sulfur speciation in type 2 chondrites is invariable. For all studied chondrites, the carbonyl groups are mainly under the form of ketones and their abundance can't be related to the degree of aqueous alteration. Any parameters we have measured in this study lead us to conclude that the molecular variability among type 1 and 2 carbonaceous chondrites are less due to the footprint left by the hydrothermal activity than due to the heterogeneity of an organic precursor accreted by each parent body. In particular, our measurements invalidate the hypothesis that the alteration would cause an oxidative conversion of aliphatic chains to carboxylic acid functions.