Abstract : The vulture's conservation relies in part on the management of their trophic resources, which is, in Europe, largely linked to farming activities and constrained by sanitary regulations. However, through scavenging, vultures provide ecosystem services. Hence, feeding them can be seen as a beneficial activity both preserving these flagship species and maintaining the services they offer. We conducted an interdisciplinary framework on the "natural carcass removal" (i.e. by vultures), coupling social investigations and ecological data. We assessed the consequences of various local managements of carcass elimination on a population of vultures and on the benefits of natural carcass removal. Our multi-agent model includes explicitly vulture's feeding behavior - considered as the "offer" for the service -, and the carcass provisions to them - representing the "demand" for this service. Our results underline the advantages of a carcass disposal system directly managed by farmers, called light feeding station. The persistence of the vulture population and the associated benefits depend on the utilization of the light feeding station. When there is a mismatch between the demand and the offer, negative effects can occur for both humans and vultures. The adjustment of carcass provisions in order to match vulture food requirements is necessary with a long term management of natural carcass elimination. We discuss on social dimension integration in modelling approaches of socio-ecological systems, focusing on the respective relation of social and ecological scientists to modelling. Finally, we discuss on the theoretical, current, and potential implications of considering vultures as ecosystem service providers for their conservation. We replace our considerations in a larger perspective, to reconsider the relevance of the ecosystem service concept - through the MEA approach - for nature conservation.