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Influence des pertes thermiques sur les performances des turbomachines

Abstract : In the conventional turbomachines, calculations are done assuming adiabatic flow. But, the negative influence of external and internal heat exchange on the performance of small turbomachines at low loads and low speeds have been shown by many studies in the literature. Then, this assumption is no longer admissible. The main objective of this thesis is to help remove the assumption of adiabaticity.A study of the state of art has identified the different kinds of heat transfer and defined the limits of our investigations.Afterwards, a generalized exergy analysis whose main goal is to take into account the two principles of thermodynamics has been made and the variation of exergy performance versus heat transfer has been studied.The maps currently used are made with the assumption of adiabaticity. The laws of similarity in turbomachines working with compressible fluid studied propose new dimensionless coordinates that can be used in any operating condition (adiabatic or not).Finally, we present a measurement protocol and a numerical model for calculating heat transfer in a turbocharger.Some results from our work indicate that the performance of thermal turbomachinery announced regardless of thermal heat exchanges are found to be overestimated.The new laws of similarity proposed generalize the Rateau’s theorem to compressible fluid flow in any operating condition and can be used to calculate heat transfer from adiabatic test results. Supplementary information is still required for the complete prediction of performance and heat transfer.The numerical model for calculating heat transfer gives some results that are in agreement with those expected. But actual data from test bench are required for complete validation.
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Kouadio Alphonse Diango. Influence des pertes thermiques sur les performances des turbomachines. Thermique [physics.class-ph]. Conservatoire national des arts et metiers - CNAM, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010CNAM0753⟩. ⟨tel-00598488⟩

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