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La céramique du Néolithique moyen II de l'Yonne à la Saône entre 4300 et 3400 avant notre ère

Abstract : The territory between the valleys of the Yonne and the Saône has always been a zone of cultural meeting in particular during the middle Neolithic II, between 4300 and 3400 BC. Since the 1970's, the culture of the Néolithique moyen bourguignon (N.M.B.) has been recognized in this region and its main characteristics were defined during a round table discussion organized in Beffia in 1984 (Pétrequin and Gallay 1984). From criteria based essentially on the ceramic typology, the N.M.B. is then mainly confined within the regions of Burgundy and Franche-Comté.Since 1984, the zone of there culture has been expended in particular to the South and Southwest. Multiple deposits have been discovered since 1984. They allow a better documentation of the N.M.B., but they also imply a chronological and geographical variability, still little recognized for this culture.Based on the study of more than thirty series of ceramics between the Yonne and Saône, our work was aimed to highlight such changes in the heart of a region's original definition of N.M.B. While considering the diversity of available series and their often severe fragmentation, the systematic use of objective criteria used to establish a grid of typological reading of the ceramic, which is coupled to some of its technological characteristics. These criteria were stored in a geo-referenced relational database and have been studied independently or in combination. They are then enhanced by quantitative treatment, the use of factor analysis, and spatial processing at different geographical scales.After an analysis of all the considered series, a synthesis has been drawn up to bring to light the most discriminating criteria. This one concerns, at first, the deposits from the zone of study. Three groups can then been distinguished from the ceramic typology and for whom there are corresponding certain technical aspects. Overlapping the available chronological and geographical data, these groups seem to reveal considerable variations in Burgundy.Secondly, these variations acquire a more important value, brought out by the comparison of the results with all the series attributed to the N.M.B. and with data from external cultures. A first northern group includes ceramic characteristics of typology previous to the establishment of the N.M.B. Joining mainly the end of the fifth millennium BC, this group reflects primarily the influences of the Noyen group and ancient Michelsberg, to whom are added certain features from ancient Chasséen. A second group, more to the South is situated between the end of the fifth and the beginning of the fourth millennium. In a geographical zone where the chassean influences are more important, certain typological lines of ancient Michelsberg are also present, but under a derived shape. In this group appear the first typical lines of the N.M.B. A third group seems to establish itself from approximately 3800 BC. It corresponds to a more evolved phase of N.M.B. ceramics and it occupies essentially a more easterly zone, between the Saône and the Jura. Finally, by bibliographical comparison, a more recent phase of the N.M.B. can be recognized after 3650 BC, in particular in the most recent levels at the Concise site (Switzerland).
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Submitted on : Tuesday, May 31, 2011 - 3:12:49 PM
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Clément Moreau. La céramique du Néolithique moyen II de l'Yonne à la Saône entre 4300 et 3400 avant notre ère. Archéologie et Préhistoire. Université de Bourgogne, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010DIJOL006⟩. ⟨tel-00596511⟩

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