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Quelles valeurs de référence pour l'analyse de la durabilité environnementale des systèmes de production animale? Méthode de détermination et application aux exploitations laitières de Bretagne

Abstract : Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) offers a robust scientific framework to quantify multiple environmental impacts of agricultural systems. Currently, LCA does not estimate whether the environmental impacts calculated are compatible with sustainable development. The scientific objective of this work is to help define sustainable farm development by determining limits of environmental sustainability with a method based on Reference Values (RV). These RV were determined and quantified for dairy production systems in Brittany, France. They were calculated as maximum acceptable impacts on ecosystems (e.g., in coastal waters) and correspond to maximum farm-emission levels (e.g., of greenhouse gases or nitrogen) to respect the Critical Natural Capital. The RV represented limits that dairy farms would have to meet to follow sustainable development. The terminology used to designate RV in environmental analysis methods must be harmonized. The terms proposed in this thesis are normative RV and relative RV. The application of RV to a sample of dairy farms in Brittany shows that most of these farms exceed the values set, but there is large variability in impacts, whose analysis and evaluation yields insights. Comparative analysis of the farms revealed characteristics of conventional and organic farms that have lower environmental impacts. However, even these farms do not reach these environmental objectives while maintaining current production levels. To investigate the leeway that dairy farms have to respect the strictest RV, environmental impacts, milk production, and land uses were modelled by linear programming. This territorial-level approach concluded that a significant change in current dairy farms and the dairy sector must be envisaged to satisfy the environmental objectives (e.g., increasing the area of non-agricultural zones). The preservation of current production levels does not seem compatible with the environmental requirements defined by the RV. Alternatives might be found to insure new revenues to farmer, e.g. paying no productive services of agriculture. The integration of the context, societal expectations, and farmers' expectations is necessary for studies of agricultural sustainability and for proposing alternative land uses.
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Ivonne Acosta-Alba. Quelles valeurs de référence pour l'analyse de la durabilité environnementale des systèmes de production animale? Méthode de détermination et application aux exploitations laitières de Bretagne. Sciences de la Terre. Agrocampus - Ecole nationale supérieure d'agronomie de rennes, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 20110-30⟩. ⟨tel-00595762⟩

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