Abstract : The context of this thesis is the development of wireless sensor networks for aerospace applications. The concerned aerospace applications are the temperature and mechanical stress measurement, on the aircraft wings for flight test and on the satellite structures. Note that these measurements must be made in real time without data loss. Our researches are focused on developing wireless communication architecture. This architecture should meet the specific needs of these applications in term of low cost, low power consumption and high data rate. The RF front-end architecture developed in this thesis uses the UWB frequency band from 6 GHz up to 8.5 GHz approved in Europe. The RF transceiver is based on a direct-conversion architecture that uses two differential channels I and Q. Our work is focused on the design of frequency mixers. These mixers require a very important relative frequency bandwidth (10-510 MHz), in the input of the up-conversion mixer and in the output of down-conversion mixer. The design of the low noise amplifier (LNA) is less sensitive because its relative bandwidth requirement is less important. A new topology of mixer was designed to meet the need for bandwidth with zero conversion loss to directly connect the antenna without using power amplifier and reduce the control power to -3 dBm to reduce consumption of the Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO). In this way, the transmitter is reduced to two low consumption mixers. This architecture leaves more flexibility in terms of power consumption for the design of the receiver. The RF blocks have been developed in CMOS 130 nm; this technology allows us to achieve good performance with minimum cost. The measurements validate the operation of the developed circuits.