Abstract : Studying luminescent properties of nanoparticles leads to informations about elementary mechanisms connected to the luminescence. As it has been done for semiconductors (quantum confinement effect for instance), we want to evaluate the influence of parameters like size or composition of insulating nanoparticles on their luminescence. In this purpose, we had to develop a versatile tool, able to efficiently excite these particles, then perform their image and their spectroscopy. The achromatic confocal microscope built during my phD work and hosted in the Nanoptec center is able to fill these aims : tunable wavelenght from deep UV (210 nm) to IR (about 1 μm), spatial resolution of about 1 μm (enables us to work on sufficiently separated particules), confocal aspect leading to a spatial isolation of the studied object luminescence, detection system able to spectrally select this luminescence... We made various collaborations with teams in and out of the laboratory, such as spatial cartography of dopant distribution in laser fibers, evaluation of optical inhomogeneities amidst ceramics, spatial dispersion measurements of nanoparticles in plastics... The achromatic confocal microscope is also helpful for a better understanding of excitation power effects of luminescent properties of various sizes and compositions nanoparticles.