Abstract : Livestock was the second economic activity after crops farming in Benin. Cattle livestock in the propensity zone of North Benin and particularly of the Northeast remained the major component of the livestock sector as cattle stock estimated to 2,000, 000 heads. Livestock promotion in Benin did not take into account all the aspects of its development especially the socio-anthropological and socioeconomic aspects. The economic management of the herds nowadays imposed development of policies articulated around the complex herd-environment. The necessity to figure out this complex just like the herders who looked for the harmony with their environment should become key objective assigning to all stakeholders in this sector. The analysis of the environmental frame highlighted some favorable conditions to the development of the cattle herding. However some deep handicaps appeared while analysing the structuralisation of the local communities in the Northeast of Benin. The historic social relationships and the specialization of the agricultural functions maintained every ethnic group in a function and an acquired social position. Then Fulani were considered as herders, Baatonu as farmers, Yoruba and Dendi as traders. In spite of a progress in the implementation of a modern state with its administrative structure and its development policies, the social features highlighted the weaknesses of administrative management and social advancement of the communities in the Northeast of Benin. With the complementarities of the communities, the herders had developed survival attitudes and the progress of their main activity that was the cattle herding. The socio-anthropological characteristics of the herder families showed their flexibility to adapt themselves to the environment by joining farming into herding and by developing social relationships. All these strategies allowed them to have enough spaces for their activity at the same time in their tie or their origin country and in neighborhood area, which can be regional or national. This behavior also built itself based on their fine knowledge of the vegetations in different parts of the pastoral land and with the indicators availability of fodder species according to seasons in Northeast Benin and neighbor. The vegetation units used as rangelands covered natural grasslands in savannas and woodlands. These exploited territorial units constituted by ecological niches, which the herder integrated into the various itineraries of herds to maintain all herds and animals nutritional state satisfying. The herders estimated daily the nutritional state of the herd and animals with regard to their physical state, which is accurate from precise anatomical points. The temporal and spatial evaluation of the physical state of the herd and animals allowed herders to build the itineraries of rangelands and to determine the convenient periods of their exploitation. The rangelands building were dynamic and allowed the herder to answer to normal or exceptional situations of production or to socioeconomic situations in order to maintain their well-being. The herder was also liable to modifications of the capacities of his cattle herd or to improvements of cattle herd production performances on a more or less long term according to the dynamic conditions of the socioeconomic and cultural environment.