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Pollution de type urbaine au monoxyde de carbone et sensibilité du myocarde au syndrome d’ischémie-reperfusion : rôle cardioprotecteur de l’exercice

Abstract : Epidemiological studies suggested that carbon monoxide (CO) urban air pollution is mainly related to cardiovascular mortality. In addition, recent experimental studies have highlighted that CO exposure was responsible for the development of cardiomyocytes’ pathological remodeling, which can render the heart more vulnerable to acute stresses. Therefore, the aim of this experimental work was to i) evaluate the impact of prolonged exposure to simulated CO urban pollution on the sensitivity of the myocardium to IR ; and ii) evaluate potential cardioprotective effects of regular bouts of endurance training in this model. 187 Wistar rats were separated into 3 groups : control rats, CO rats exposed during 4 weeks to CO (30-100 ppm), and CO exercised rats. Myocardial sensibility to IR was evaluated with a regional ischemia performed on a Langendorff model of isolated heart. Moreover, the cardiomyocytes’ function and calcium handling were evaluated at basal conditions, following a protocol of cellular anoxia and reoxygenation. The results of this study confirm that chronic exposure to CO is responsible for cardiac phenotypic changes, which are characterized in this work by an imbalance in the cardiomyocytes’ oxidative status, an impairment of calcium handling and iNOS expression. These phenotypic changes were associated in this work with higher heart vulnerability to IR. Another major result of this study is that regular bouts of endurance training conducted prior to CO exposure prevented the pathological cardiac remodeling, consequently leading to higher heart vulnerability due to IR
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Grégory Meyer. Pollution de type urbaine au monoxyde de carbone et sensibilité du myocarde au syndrome d’ischémie-reperfusion : rôle cardioprotecteur de l’exercice. Sciences agricoles. Université d'Avignon, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010AVIG0702⟩. ⟨tel-00595083⟩

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