Abstract : SNCF is using specialised rolling stock units to inspect internal defects in rails. Rail's inspection frequency is defined by the cumulative weight of the trains which are going through. In 2009, the scheduling of these train units is decentralised. SNCF is studying the centralisation of this process. In this Ph.D. thesis, a new problem, the Railroad Track Inspection Scheduling Problem is studied. A mathematical formulation, based on the generalization of classical arc routing models, is proposed. An exact solving approach, based on Benders' decomposition scheme, is detailed. From this approach, a column and cut generation heuristic is developed, implemented, and tested on real datasets for 2009. The industrial software developed around this heuristic is presented.